Pathophysiology of multiple myeloma bone disease.
ABSTRACT Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell malignancy characterized by the frequent development of osteolytic bone lesions. The multiple myeloma-induced bone destruction is a result of the increased activity of osteoclasts that occurs adjacent to multiple myeloma cells. This activity is accompanied by suppressed osteoblast differentiation and activity, resulting in severely impaired bone formation and development of devastating osteolytic lesions. Recently the biologic mechanism involved in the imbalance between osteoclast activation and osteoblast inhibition induced by multiple myeloma cells has begun to be clarified. In this article, the pathophysiology underlying the imbalanced bone remodeling and potential new strategies for the treatment of bone disease in multiple myeloma are reviewed.
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ABSTRACT: Recently, it has been demonstrated that macrophage inflammatory protein 1- alpha (MIP-1 alpha) is crucially involved in the development of osteolytic bone lesions in multiple myeloma (MM). The current study was designed to determine the direct effects of MIP-1 alpha on MM cells. Thus, we were able to demonstrate that MIP-1 alpha acts as a potent growth, survival, and chemotactic factor in MM cells. MIP-1 alpha-induced signaling involved activation of the AKT/protein kinase B (PKB) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In addition, inhibition of AKT activation by phosphatidylinositol 3- kinase (PI3-K) inhibitors did not influence MAPK activation, suggesting that there is no cross talk between MIP-1 alpha-dependent activation of the PI3-K/AKT and extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Our data suggest that besides its role in development of osteolytic bone destruction, MIP-1 alpha also directly affects cell signaling pathways mediating growth, survival, and migration in MM cells and provide evidence that MIP-1 alpha might play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of MM.Blood 06/2003; 101(9):3568-73. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma (MM) expands in the bone marrow and causes devastating bone destruction by enhancing osteoclastic bone resorption in its vicinity, suggesting a close interaction between MM cells and osteoclasts (OCs). Here, we show that peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived OCs enhanced growth and survival of primary MM cells as well as MM cell lines more potently than stromal cells, and that OCs protected MM cells from apoptosis induced by serum depletion or doxorubicin. OCs produced osteopontin (OPN) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), and adhesion of MM cells to OCs increased IL-6 production from OCs. In addition, IL-6 and OPN in combination enhanced MM cell growth and survival. However, the effects of OCs on MM cell growth and survival were only partially suppressed by a simultaneous addition of anti-IL-6 and anti-OPN antibodies and were completely abrogated by inhibition of cellular contact between MM cells and OCs. These results demonstrate that OCs enhance MM cell growth and survival through a cell-cell contact-mediated mechanism that is partially dependent on IL-6 and OPN. It is suggested that interactions of MM cells with OCs augment MM growth and survival and, thereby, form a vicious cycle, leading to extensive bone destruction and MM cell expansion.Blood 11/2004; 104(8):2484-91. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: B-cell activating factor (BAFF) and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) have been shown to promote multiple myeloma (MM) cell growth. We show that the main site of production for BAFF and APRIL is the bone marrow (BM) environment, and that production is mainly by monocytes and neutrophils. In addition, osteoclasts produce very high levels of APRIL, unlike BM stromal cells. Myeloma cells (MMCs) express TACI (transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor), the receptor of BAFF/APRIL, at varying levels. TACI expression is a good indicator of a BAFF-binding receptor. Expression data of purified MMCs from 65 newly diagnosed patients have been generated using Affymetrix microarrays and were analyzed by supervised clustering of groups with higher (TACI(hi)) versus lower (TACI(lo)) TACI expression levels. Patients in the TACI(lo) group had clinical parameters associated with bad prognosis. A set of 659 genes was differentially expressed between TACI(hi) and TACI(lo) MMCs. This set makes it possible to efficiently classify TACI(hi) and TACI(lo) MMCs in an independent cohort of 40 patients. TACI(hi) MMCs displayed a mature plasma cell gene signature, indicating dependence on the BM environment. In contrast, the TACI(lo) group had a gene signature of plasmablasts, suggesting an attenuated dependence on the BM environment. Taken together, our findings suggest using gene expression profiling to identify the group of patients who might benefit most from treatment with BAFF/APRIL inhibitors.Blood 09/2005; 106(3):1021-30. · 9.06 Impact Factor