Overexpression of the elongation factor 1A1 relates to muscle proteolysis and proapoptotic p66(ShcA) gene transcription in hypercatabolic trauma patients.
ABSTRACT The eukaryotic elongation factors (eEF1A2 and eEF1A1) play a key role in translation of messenger RNA (mRNA) to protein. In skeletal muscle of healthy humans, EEF1A2 is overexpressed and selected over EEF1A1. In cellular stress models, muscle EEF1A1 expression increased and was associated with apoptosis and catabolism. We have determined mRNA levels of EEF1A1 and EEF1A2, as well as those of other proapoptotic genes, such as p66(ShcA) and c-MYC, in skeletal muscle of severely traumatized patients and healthy volunteers. Muscle protein kinetic was determined by stable isotopes and the arteriovenous technique. The patients were in a hypercatabolic condition because the rate of muscle proteolysis exceeded that of synthesis. Mean mRNA levels of EEF1A1 and EEF1A2 were 165- and 29-fold greater (P < .01) in patients than in the control group, respectively. Mean p66(ShcA) mRNA levels were 3-fold greater (P < .05) in patients than in the controls. In contrast, c-MYC mRNA levels were not significantly different in patients and healthy controls. In patients, muscle mRNA levels of EEF1A1 and p66(ShcA) directly correlated (P < .05) with the rate of proteolysis (R = 0.901 and R = 0.826, respectively). This is in agreement with a reduction in actin and tubulin protein content, both markers of cytoskeletal and sarcomeric disorganization, and with an increased poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase cleavage, a marker of apoptosis. In conclusion, in hypercatabolic traumatized patients, an up-regulation of muscle EEF1A1 and p66(ShcA) relates to proteolysis rate, suggesting an involvement of these genes in muscle catabolic response.
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ABSTRACT: The deleterious consequences of fatty acid (FA) and neutral lipid accumulation in nonadipose tissues, such as the heart, contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. To elucidate mechanisms of FA-induced cell death, or lipotoxicity, we generated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutants resistant to palmitate-induced death and isolated a clone with disruption of eukaryotic elongation factor (eEF) 1A-1. eEF1A-1 involvement in lipotoxicity was confirmed in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts, in which small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown also conferred palmitate resistance. In wild-type CHO and H9c2 cells, palmitate increased reactive oxygen species and induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, changes accompanied by increased eEF1A-1 expression. Disruption of eEF1A-1 expression rendered these cells resistant to hydrogen peroxide- and ER stress-induced death, indicating that eEF1A-1 plays a critical role in the cell death response to these stressors downstream of lipid overload. Disruption of eEF1A-1 also resulted in actin cytoskeleton defects under basal conditions and in response to palmitate, suggesting that eEF1A-1 mediates lipotoxic cell death, secondary to oxidative and ER stress, by regulating cytoskeletal changes critical for this process. Furthermore, our observations of oxidative stress, ER stress, and induction of eEF1A-1 expression in a mouse model of lipotoxic cardiomyopathy implicate this cellular response in the pathophysiology of metabolic disease.Molecular Biology of the Cell 03/2006; 17(2):770-8. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An increasing number of evidences suggest the involvement of the eukaryotic elongation factor 1A, a core component of the protein synthesis machinery, at the onset of cell transformation. In fact, eEF1A is shown to be up-regulated in cell death; moreover, it seems to be involved in the regulation of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. In addition, eEF1A undergoes several post-translational modifications, mainly phosphorylation and methylation, that generally influence the activity of the protein. This article summarizes the present knowledges on the several extra-translational roles of eEF1A also in order to understand as the protein synthesis regulatory mechanisms could offer tools for cancer intervention.Amino Acids 08/2004; 26(4):443-8. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cellular mechanisms responsible for enhanced muscle protein breakdown in hospitalized patients, which frequently results in lean body wasting, are unknown. To determine whether the lysosomal, Ca2+-activated, and ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathways are activated, we measured mRNA levels for components of these processes in muscle biopsies from severe head trauma patients. These patients exhibited negative nitrogen balance and increased rates of whole-body protein breakdown (assessed by [13C]leucine infusion) and of myofibrillar protein breakdown (assessed by 3-methylhistidine urinary excretion). Increased muscle mRNA levels for cathepsin D, m-calpain, and critical components of the ubiquitin proteolytic pathway (i.e., ubiquitin, the 14-kDa ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2, and proteasome subunits) paralleled these metabolic adaptations. The data clearly support a role for multiple proteolytic processes in increased muscle proteolysis. The ubiquitin proteolytic pathway could be activated by altered glucocorticoid production and/or increased circulating levels of interleukin 1beta and interleukin 6 observed in head trauma patients and account for the breakdown of myofibrillar proteins, as was recently reported in animal studies.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/1996; 93(7):2714-8. · 9.74 Impact Factor