Dietary conjugated linoleic acid decreases adipocyte size and favorably modifies adipokine status and insulin sensitivity in obese, insulin-resistant rats
ABSTRACT Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been shown to alter adiposity in some species with varying effects on insulin resistance. The objective of this 8-week study was to investigate the effects of feeding a CLA mixture (1.5%, wt/wt) on adipocyte size, insulin sensitivity, adipokine status, and adipose lipid composition in fa/fa vs lean Zucker rats. The fa/fa CLA-fed rats had smaller adipocytes and improved insulin sensitivity compared with fa/fa rats fed the control diet. Conjugated linoleic acids did not affect select markers of adipose differentiation, lipid filling, lipid uptake, or oxidation. Dietary CLA, compared with the control diet, reduced circulating leptin and elevated fasting serum adiponectin concentrations in fa/fa rats. Adipose resistin messenger RNA levels were greater in fa/fa CLA-fed rats compared with fa/fa control rats. CLA did not markedly alter adipose phospholipid fatty acid composition, and the changes in the triacylglycerol fatty acid composition reflected a lower delta-9 desaturase index of CLA-fed vs control-fed rats. In conclusion, CLA reduced adipocyte size and favorably modified adipokine status and insulin sensitivity in fa/fa Zucker rats.
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- "Less information is available regarding the effects of CLA supplementation on lean rats. However, in the Zucker rat, a commonly used rodent model of obesity and insulin resistance, CLA supplementation is generally observed to improve insulin sensitivity and inflammation [28,29]. Therefore, it is possible the general lack of negative consquences to feeding high amount of SARA butter in the current study is due to the choice of lean rats as a model i.e. that mice are more susceptible to the effects of CLAt10,c12 than are lean rats. "
ABSTRACT: Background Numerous studies have investigated the effects of isolated CLA supplementation on glucose homeostasis in humans and rodents. However, both the amount and relative abundance of CLA isomers in supplemental form are not representative of what is consumed from natural sources. No study to date has examined the effects of altered CLA isomer content within a natural food source. Our goal was to increase the content of the insulin desensitizing CLAt10,c12 isomer relative to the CLAc9,t11 isomer in cow’s milk by inducing subacute rumenal acidosis (SARA), and subsequently investigate the effects of this milk fat on parameters related to glucose and insulin tolerance in rats. Methods We fed female rats (~2.5 to 3 months of age) CLA t10,c12 –enriched (SARA) butter or non-SARA butter based diets for 4 weeks in either low (10% of kcal from fat; 0.18% total CLA by weight) or high (60% of kcal from fat; 0.55% total CLA by weight) amounts. In an effort to extend these findings, we then fed rats high (60% kcal) amounts of SARA or non-SARA butter for a longer duration (8 weeks) and assessed changes in whole body glucose, insulin and pyruvate tolerance in comparison to low fat and 60% lard conditions. Results There was a main effect for increased fasting blood glucose and insulin in SARA vs. non-SARA butter groups after 4 weeks of feeding (p < 0.05). However, blood glucose and insulin concentration, and maximal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle were similar in all groups. Following 8 weeks of feeding, insulin tolerance was impaired by the SARA butter, but not glucose or pyruvate tolerance. The non-SARA butter did not impair tolerance to glucose, insulin or pyruvate. Conclusions This study suggests that increasing the consumption of a naturally enriched CLAt10,c12 source, at least in rats, has minimal impact on whole body glucose tolerance or muscle specific insulin response.Lipids in Health and Disease 06/2014; 13(1):101. DOI:10.1186/1476-511X-13-101 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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- "*P ≤ 0.05; **P ≤ 0.01; ***P ≤ 0.001. 2000; Noto et al., 2007) and pigs (Corino et al., 2005). Those studies were limited in that the adipocyte size was measured in only 1 fat depot (i.e., s.c.). "
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lactation and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on adipocyte sizes of subcutaneous (s.c.) and visceral (VC) fat depots in primiparous dairy cows during the first 105 d in milk (DIM). German Holstein heifers (n=25) were divided into a control (CON) and a CLA group. From 1 DIM until sample collection, CLA cows were fed 100g of CLA supplement/d (about 6% of c9,t11 and t10,c12 isomers each), whereas the CON cows received 100g of fatty acid mixture/d instead of CLA. The CON cows (n=5 each) were slaughtered at 1, 42, and 105 DIM, and the CLA cows (n=5 each) were slaughtered at 42 and 105 DIM. Adipose tissues from 3s.c. depots (tailhead, withers, and sternum) and from 3 VC depots (omental, mesenteric, and retroperitoneal) were sampled. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was done to measure adipocyte area (μm(2)). Retroperitoneal adipocyte sizes were mostly larger than adipocytes from the other sites, independent of lactation time and treatment. Significant changes related to duration of lactation were limited to retroperitoneal fat: adipocyte sizes were significantly smaller at 105 DIM than at 1 DIM in CON cows. Adipocyte sizes were decreased in s.c. depots from the tailhead at 105 DIM and from the sternum at 42 DIM in CLA versus CON cows, whereas for VC depots, adipocyte sizes were decreased in mesenteric fat at 42 and 105 DIM, and in omental and retroperitoneal fat, at 105 DIM in CLA versus CON cows. Within the CLA group, adipocyte sizes were smaller in the s.c. depot from the tailhead at 105 DIM than at 42 DIM. Adipocyte sizes and depot weights were significantly correlated in s.c. depots (r=0.795) in the CLA group and in retroperitoneal fat both in the CON (r=0.698) and the CLA (r=0.723) group. In conclusion, CLA-induced decreases in adipocyte size indicate lipolytic or antilipogenic effects of CLA, or both effects, on adipose tissue in primiparous dairy cows.Journal of Dairy Science 06/2011; 94(6):2871-82. DOI:10.3168/jds.2010-3868 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In order to improve ozone generation, a new type of ozonizer is proposed, where a silent discharge and a surface discharge are generated in the separated discharge spaces at the same time. As the applied voltage is increased, the surface discharge begins first from the inner coil electrode, then the silent discharge occurs in the gap between the glass wall and the outer cylindrical electrode. It is observed that the silent discharge is enhanced and ozone generation by the silent discharge increases when the surface discharge on the coil electrode becomes active. Hence, the ozone generation is improved by up to 110 g/kWh in the case of N<sub>2</sub>+O<sub>2</sub> mixture as a test gas and up to 274 g/kWh in oxygen gasIEEE Transactions on Industry Applications 12/1995; 31(6-31):1458 - 1462. DOI:10.1109/28.475741 · 1.76 Impact Factor