Dietary conjugated linoleic acid decreases adipocyte size and favorably modifies adipokine status and insulin sensitivity in obese, insulin-resistant rats.
ABSTRACT Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been shown to alter adiposity in some species with varying effects on insulin resistance. The objective of this 8-week study was to investigate the effects of feeding a CLA mixture (1.5%, wt/wt) on adipocyte size, insulin sensitivity, adipokine status, and adipose lipid composition in fa/fa vs lean Zucker rats. The fa/fa CLA-fed rats had smaller adipocytes and improved insulin sensitivity compared with fa/fa rats fed the control diet. Conjugated linoleic acids did not affect select markers of adipose differentiation, lipid filling, lipid uptake, or oxidation. Dietary CLA, compared with the control diet, reduced circulating leptin and elevated fasting serum adiponectin concentrations in fa/fa rats. Adipose resistin messenger RNA levels were greater in fa/fa CLA-fed rats compared with fa/fa control rats. CLA did not markedly alter adipose phospholipid fatty acid composition, and the changes in the triacylglycerol fatty acid composition reflected a lower delta-9 desaturase index of CLA-fed vs control-fed rats. In conclusion, CLA reduced adipocyte size and favorably modified adipokine status and insulin sensitivity in fa/fa Zucker rats.
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ABSTRACT: Troglitazone (CS-045) is one of the thiazolidinediones that activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), which is expressed primarily in adipose tissues. To elucidate the mechanism by which troglitazone relieves insulin resistance in vivo, we studied its effects on the white adipose tissues of an obese animal model (obese Zucker rat). Administration of troglitazone for 15 d normalized mild hyperglycemia and marked hyperinsulinemia in these rats. Plasma triglyceride level was decreased by troglitazone in both obese and lean rats. Troglitazone did not change the total weight of white adipose tissues but increased the number of small adipocytes (< 2,500 micron2) approximately fourfold in both retroperitoneal and subcutaneous adipose tissues of obese rats. It also decreased the number of large adipocytes (> 5,000 micron2) by approximately 50%. In fact, the percentage of apoptotic nuclei was approximately 2.5-fold higher in the troglitazone-treated retroperitoneal white adipose tissue than control. Concomitantly, troglitazone normalized the expression levels of TNF-alpha which were elevated by 2- and 1.4-fold in the retroperitoneal and mesenteric white adipose tissues of the obese rats, respectively. Troglitazone also caused a dramatic decrease in the expression levels of leptin, which were increased by 4-10-fold in the white adipose tissues of obese rats. These results suggest that the primary action of troglitazone may be to increase the number of small adipocytes in white adipose tissues, presumably via PPARgamma. The increased number of small adipocytes and the decreased number of large adipocytes in white adipose tissues of troglitazone-treated obese rats appear to be an important mechanism by which increased expression levels of TNF-alpha and higher levels of plasma lipids are normalized, leading to alleviation of insulin resistance.Journal of Clinical Investigation 03/1998; 101(6):1354-61. · 12.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the basis for the reduction in fat pad size in rats fed conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). In the first study, growing female Sprague-Dawley rats (initial weight150 g) were fed diets containing 0, 0.25 and 0.5 g/100 g diet of a purified (97% CLA) and 0.5% of a feed-grade (55% CLA) source of CLA for 5 wk to determine the effects on growth performance and fat mass. There was no effect of CLA on growth rate or food intake. Dietary CLA reduced retroperitoneal fat pad weight 13, 25 and 32% in rats fed 0.25 and 0. 5% of the pure CLA and 0.5% of the feed-grade CLA, respectively (P < 0.05). Similar effects were observed in the parametrial fat pad. The reduced pad size was due to smaller adipocyte size rather than a reduced cell number. Relative to the control group, mean cell volume was 15, 28 and 29% lower in tissue from rats fed 0.25 and 0.5% of the pure CLA and 0.5% of the feed-grade CLA, respectively (P < 0.01). In the second study, rats were fed CLA (0 vs. 0.5%) for 7 or 49 d. Reductions in fat pad weight were observed within 7 d. In addition, the effects of CLA on energy metabolism were studied in the chronically fed rats. There were no significant effects of CLA on oxygen consumption, CO(2) or heat production. During wk 4 of feeding, but not at other times, there was a 5% lower respiratory quotient in CLA-fed rats (P < 0.05). There was a time-dependent accumulation of CLA in adipose tissue and a decrease in monounsaturated fatty acids. These results suggest that the reduction in fat mass in rats fed CLA can be accounted for by a reduction in cell size rather than a change in cell number.Journal of Nutrition 06/2000; 130(6):1548-54. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To study the mechanisms responsible for the hypotriglyceridemic effect of marine oils, we monitored the effects of high dietary intake of n−3 PUFA on hepatic and muscular β-oxidation, plasma leptin concentration, leptin receptor gene expression, and in vivo insulin action. Two groups of male Wistar rats were fed either a high-fat diet [28% (w/w) of saturated fat] or a high-fat diet containing 10% n−3 PUFA and 18% saturated fat for 3 wk. The hypotriglyceridemic effect of n−3 PUFA was accompanied by increased hepatic oxidation of palmitoyl-CoA (125%, Pl-carnitine (480%, PPPPPLipids 01/2003; 38(10):1023-1029. · 2.56 Impact Factor