Phosphatidic acid binds to and inhibits the activity of Arabidopsis CTR1.
ABSTRACT Phosphatidic acid (PA) has only recently been identified as an important eukaryotic lipid-signalling molecule. In plants, PA formation is triggered by various biotic and abiotic stresses, including wounding, pathogen attack, drought, salinity, cold, and freezing. However, few molecular targets of PA have been identified so far. One of the best characterized is Raf-1, a mammalian MAPKKK. Arabidopsis thaliana CTR1 (constitutive triple response 1) is one of the plant homologues of Raf-1 and functions as a negative regulator of the ethylene signalling pathway. Here, it is shown that PA binds CTR1 and inhibits its kinase activity. Using different PA-binding assays, the kinase domain of CTR1 (CTR1-K) was found to bind PA directly. Addition of PA resulted in almost complete inhibition of CTR1 kinase activity and disrupted the intramolecular interaction between CTR1-K and the CTR1 N-terminal regulatory domain. Additionally, PA blocked the interaction of CTR1 with ETR1, one of the ethylene receptors. The basic amino acid motif shown to be required for PA binding in Raf-1 is conserved in CTR1-K. However, mutations in this motif did not affect either PA-binding or PA-dependent inhibition of CTR1 activity. Subsequent deletion analysis of CTR1's kinase domain revealed a novel PA-binding region at the C-terminus of the kinase.
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ABSTRACT: Phosphoglycerolipids are essential structural constituents of membranes and some also have important cell signalling roles. In this review, we focus on phosphoglycerolipids that are mediators in hormone signal transduction in plants. We first describe the structures of the main signalling phosphoglycerolipids and the metabolic pathways that generate them, namely the phospholipase and lipid kinase pathways. In silico analysis of Arabidopsis transcriptome data provides evidence that the genes encoding the enzymes of these pathways are transcriptionally regulated in responses to hormones, suggesting some link with hormone signal transduction. The involvement of phosphoglycerolipid signalling in the early responses to abscisic acid, salicylic acid and auxins is then detailed. One of the most important signalling lipids in plants is phosphatidic acid. It can activate or inactivate protein kinases and/or protein phosphatases involved in hormone signalling. It can also activate NADPH oxidase leading to the production of reactive oxygen species. We will interrogate the mechanisms that allow the activation/deactivation of the lipid pathways, in particular the roles of G proteins and calcium. Mediating lipids thus appear as master players of cell signalling, modulating, if not controlling, major transducing steps of hormone signals.Plant Cell Reports 03/2013; · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a lipid second messenger involved in an array of processes occurring during a plant's life cycle. These include development, metabolism and both biotic and abiotic stress responses. PA levels increase in response to salt, but little is known about its function in the earliest responses to salt stress. In this study, we have combined an approach to isolate peripheral membrane proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana roots with lipid-affinity purification, to identify putative proteins that interact with PA and are recruited to the membrane in response to salt stress. Of the 42 putative PA-binding proteins identified by mass spectrometry, a set of eight new candidate PA-binding proteins accumulated at the membrane fraction after seven minutes of salt stress. Among these were clathrin heavy chain (CHC) isoforms, ANTH-domain clathrin assembly proteins, a putative regulator of potassium transport, two ribosomal proteins, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and a phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4-kinase. PA-binding and salt-induced membrane recruitment of GAPDH and CHC were confirmed by Western blot analysis of cellular fractions. In conclusion, the approach presented here is an effective way to isolate biologically relevant lipid-binding proteins and provides new leads in the study of PA-mediated salt stress responses in roots.Biochemical Journal 01/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Phospholipase D (PLD) and its product phosphatidic acid (PA) are incorporated in a complex metabolic network in which the individual PLD isoforms are suggested to regulate specific developmental and stress responses, including plant programmed cell death (PCD). Despite the accumulating knowledge, the mechanisms through which PLD/PA operate during PCD are still poorly understood. In this work, the role of PLDα1 in PCD and the associated caspase-like proteolysis, ethylene and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) synthesis in tomato suspension cells was studied. Wild-type (WT) and PLDα1-silenced cell lines were exposed to the cell death-inducing chemicals camptothecin (CPT), fumonisin B1 (FB1) and CdSO4. A range of caspase inhibitors effectively suppressed CPT-induced PCD in WT cells, but failed to alleviate cell death in PLDα1-deficient cells. Compared to WT, in CPT-treated PLDα1 mutant cells, reduced cell death and decreased production of H2O2 were observed. Application of ethylene significantly enhanced CPT-induced cell death both in WT and PLDα1 mutants. Treatments with the PA derivative lyso-phosphatidic acid and mastoparan (agonist of PLD/PLC signalling downstream of G proteins) caused severe cell death. Inhibitors, specific to PLD and PLC, remarkably decreased the chemical-induced cell death. Taken together with our previous findings, the results suggest that PLDα1 contributes to caspase-like-dependent cell death possibly communicated through PA, reactive oxygen species and ethylene. The dead cells expressed morphological features of PCD such as protoplast shrinkage and nucleus compaction. The presented findings reveal novel elements of PLD/PA-mediated cell death response and suggest that PLDα1 is an important factor in chemical-induced PCD signal transduction.Protoplasma 04/2013; · 2.86 Impact Factor