Murine tracheal and nasal septal epithelium for air-liquid interface cultures: A comparative study
ABSTRACT Air-liquid interface cultures using murine tracheal respiratory epithelium have revolutionized the in vitro study of airway diseases. However, these cultures often are impractical because of the small number of respiratory epithelial cells that can be isolated from the mouse trachea. The ability to study ciliary physiology in vitro is of utmost importance in the research of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Our hypothesis is that the murine nasal septum is a better source of ciliated respiratory epithelium to develop respiratory epithelial air-liquid interface models.
Nasal septa and tracheas were harvested from 10 BALB/c mice. The nasal septa were harvested by using a simple and straightforward novel technique. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on all specimens. Cell counts of ciliated respiratory epithelial cells were performed at one standard magnification (1535x). Comparative analysis of proximal and distal trachea, midanterior and midposterior nasal septal epithelium, was performed.
Independent cell counts revealed highly significant differences in the proportion of cell populations (p < 0.00001). Ciliated cell counts for the trachea (106.9 +/- 28) were an average of 38.7% of the total cell population. Nasal septal ciliated epithelial cells (277.5 +/- 16) comprised 90.1% of the total cell population.
To increase the yield of respiratory epithelial cells harvested from mice, we have found that the nasal septum is a far superior source when compared with the trachea. The greater surface area and increased concentration of ciliated epithelial cells has the potential to provide an eightfold increase in epithelial cells for the development of air-liquid interface cultures.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) that is refractory to medical or surgical intervention may involve a particularly resistant form of infection known as a bacterial biofilm. Bacterial biofilms are three-dimensional aggregates of bacteria that often are recalcitrant to antibiotics secondary to physical barrier characteristics. To date, all studies investigating biofilms in CRS have been descriptive in either human or animal tissue. To better understand the interactions of bacterial biofilms with respiratory epithelium, we describe an in vitro model of biofilm sinusitis by establishing mature biofilms on airway epithelial air-liquid interface cultures. Airway epithelial cell cultures were grown on collagen-coated semipermeable support membranes as an air-liquid interface on tissue culture inserts. Confluent air-liquid interface cultures were inoculated with the biofilm-forming PAO-1 strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and compared with cultures inoculated with two mutant strains (sad-31 and sad-36) unable to form biofilms. Inoculated tissue transwells were incubated for 20 hours, allowing for biofilm growth. The semipermeable membranes were then harvested and imaged with confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Microscopic analysis revealed the formation of biofilm-forming towers in the PAO-1 inoculated wells. The bacterial biofilms were supported by a viable airway epithelial cell surface monolayer. This study shows a reliable method for analysis of in vitro interactions of bacterial biofilms and airway epithelium. The experimental manipulation of this air-liquid interface model will help explore novel treatment approaches for bacterial biofilm-associated CRS.American Journal of Rhinology 05/2008; 22(3):235-8. DOI:10.2500/ajr.2008.22.3178 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoke exposure is considered an important negative prognostic factor for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients. However, there is no clear mechanistic evidence implicating cigarette smoke exposure in the poor clinical evolution of the disease or in the maintenance of the inflammatory state characterizing CRS. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of cigarette smoke exposure on respiratory cilia differentiation. Mouse nasal septal epithelium cultures grown at an air-liquid interface were used as a model of respiratory epithelium. After 5 days of cell growth, cultures were exposed to air on the apical surface. Additionally, cigarette smoke condensate (CSC; the particulate phase of tobacco smoke) or cigarette smoke extract (CSE; the volatile phase) were diluted in the basolateral compartment in different concentrations. After 15 days of continuous exposure, scanning electron microscopy and immunofluorescence for type IV tubulin were used to determine presence and maturation of cilia. Transepithelial resistance was also recorded to evaluate confluence and physiological barrier integrity. CSC and CSE impair ciliogenesis in a dose-dependent manner with notable effects in concentrations higher than 30 microg/mL, yielding >70% nonciliation and shorter cilia compared with control. No statistical difference on transepithelial resistance was evident. CSC and CSE exposure negatively impacts ciliogenesis of respiratory cells at concentrations not effecting transepithelial resistance. The impairment on ciliogenesis reduces the mucociliary clearance apparatus after injury and/or infection and may explain the poor response to therapy for CRS patients exposed to tobacco smoke.American journal of rhinology & allergy 03/2009; 23(2):117-22. DOI:10.2500/ajra.2009.23.3280 · 2.18 Impact Factor
Article: Biofilms[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The ability to form biofilms is a universal attribute of bacteria. Biofilms are multicellular communities held together by a self-produced extracellular matrix. The mechanisms that different bacteria employ to form biofilms vary, frequently depending on environmental conditions and specific strain attributes. In this review, we emphasize four well-studied model systems to give an overview of how several organisms form biofilms: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Using these bacteria as examples, we discuss the key features of biofilms as well as mechanisms by which extracellular signals trigger biofilm formation.Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology 07/2010; 2(7):a000398. DOI:10.1101/cshperspect.a000398 · 8.23 Impact Factor