Determination of toxicity of subacute treatment of some plant growth regulators on rats.
ABSTRACT The effects of some plant growth regulators (PGRs), 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-Dichlorofenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), at sublethal concentrations on antioxidant defense system [glutathione peroxidases (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT)], immune potential enzymes [adenosine deaminase (ADA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO)], and lipid peroxidation content [Malondialdehyde, (MDA)] were investigated in lung and speen tissues of rats. Sprague-Dawley albino rats were exposed to 0, 50, or 100 ppm (parts per million) TIBA, NAA, or 2,4-D in drinking water ad libitum for 25 days continuously. According to the results, MDA concentration significantly increased in the tissues treated with 100 ppm dosage of NAA or 2,4-D without any change in the tissues of rats treated with both dosage of TIBA. The GSH depletion in the spleen tissue of rats treated with both the dosage of NAA and 2,4-D were found to be significant. Also, GSH level in the spleen was significantly reduced with 100 ppm of 2,4-D and NAA. The activity of antioxidant enzymes were also seriously affected by PGRs; GPx significantly decreased in the lung of rats treated with both dosages of the PGRs, whereas GPx activity in the spleen were significantly increased with 100 ppm dosage of 2,4-D and NAA. On the other hand, CAT activity significantly decreased in the lung of rats treated with both dosages of NAA, 100 ppm of 2,4-D and 50 ppm of TIBA, and also in the spleen treated with 50 ppm NAA and 2,4-D. The ancillary enzyme GR activity significantly decreased in the spleen with both doses of the PGRs, also in the lung treated with both dosages of 2,4-D, 50 ppm of NAA and 100 ppm of TIBA. The drug metabolizing enzyme GST activity significantly reduced in the lung of rats treated with both dosages of the PGRs and also in the spleen treated with 100 ppm dosage of 2,4-D and TIBA and 50 ppm of NAA. Meanwhile, immune potential enzyme MPO activity significantly increased in the spleen of rats treated with both doses of NAA and TIBA whereas ADA activity significantly decreased in the spleen of rats treated with 100 ppm dose of NAA and TIBA. The observations presented led us to conclude that the administrations of subacute NAA, 2,4-D, and TIBA promote MDA content, inhibit the antioxidative defense system and activate or inhibit immune potential enzymes in the rat's spleen and lung tissues. These data suggest that PGRs produced substantial organ toxicity in the lung and spleen during the period of a 25-day subacute exposure.