Verbal memory, negative symptomatology and prediction of psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT Negative symptomatology and neurocognitive variables have been considered good predictors of functional outcome in schizophrenia. Specifically, secondary verbal memory has been proposed to be one of the main predictors of psychosocial functioning. In this study, negative symptoms and memory performance were analyzed for associations with psychosocial function. Linear regression methods were used to analyze the value of verbal memory and negative symptomatology as predictors of everyday life skills in a sample of 29 DSM-IV schizophrenia outpatients with predominant negative symptoms. We also took into account the role of gender in the analyses. Secondary verbal memory was found to explain 40% of the variance in psychosocial functioning, independently of gender, whereas the negative symptoms predicted 26%. When both variables were combined, the explained variance was about 49%. These results support the hypothesis that cognitive variables are better predictors than symptomatology. Finally, secondary verbal memory is a good predictor of psychosocial functioning in chronic schizophrenia with predominant negative symptomatology.
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ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the relationships between observed social withdrawal (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS] Passive Social Withdrawal and PANSS Active Social Avoidance), subjectively experienced social withdrawal (Social Functioning Scale [SFS] Withdrawal and SFS Interpersonal Behavior), and their associations to the underlying psychological patterns of Object Relations and Reality Testing. Patients with schizophrenia (n = 55) and bipolar disorder (n = 51) from the ongoing Thematically Organized Psychosis project, Oslo University Hospital, Norway, were evaluated using the Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory, the PANSS, and the SFS. Object relations and reality testing subscales related differentially to PANSS Passive Social Withdrawal and PANSS Active Social Avoidance. These two measures, together with the level of alienation, explained a significant amount of variance in self-experienced social dysfunction. Findings reveal the multidimensional nature of social dysfunction in severe mental disorders.The Journal of nervous and mental disease 03/2013; 201(3):222-5. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Negative symptoms (e.g., asociality and anhedonia) are a distinct symptomatic domain that has been found to significantly affect the quality of life in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Additionally, the primary negative symptom of asociality (i.e., withdrawal from social contact that derives from indifference or lack of desire to have social contact) is a major contributor to poor psychosocial functioning and has been found to play an important role in the course of the disorder. Nonetheless, the pathophysiology underlying these symptoms is unknown and currently available treatment options (e.g., antipsychotics and cognitive-behavioral therapy) fail to reliably produce efficacious benefits. Utilizing rodent paradigms that measure social behaviors (e.g., social withdrawal) to elucidate the neurobiological substrates that underlie social dysfunction and to identify novel therapeutic targets may be highly informative and useful to understand more about the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Accordingly, the purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the behavioral tasks for assessing social functioning that may be translationally relevant for investigating negative symptoms associated with schizophrenia.European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 01/2013; · 3.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives: Impaired social, role, and neurocognitive functioning are preillness characteristics of people who later develop psychosis. In people with schizophrenia, neurocognition and negative symptoms are associated with functional impairment. We examined the relative contributions of neurocognition and symptoms to social and role functioning over time in clinically high-risk (CHR) individuals and determined if negative symptoms mediated the influence of cognition on functioning. Methods: Social, role, and neurocognitive functioning and positive, negative, and disorganized symptoms were assessed in 167 individuals at CHR for psychosis in the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study Phase 1 (NAPLS-1), of whom 96 were reassessed at 12 months. Results: Regression analyses indicated that negative symptoms accounted for unique variance in social and role functioning at baseline and follow-up. Composite neurocognition accounted for unique, but modest, variance in social and role functioning at baseline and in role functioning at follow-up. Negative symptoms mediated the relationship between composite neurocognition and social and role functioning across time points. In exploratory analyses, individual tests (IQ estimate, Digit Symbol/Coding, verbal memory) selectively accounted for social and role functioning at baseline and follow-up after accounting for symptoms. When negative symptom items with content overlapping with social and role functioning measures were removed, the relationship between neurocognition and social and role functioning was strengthened. Conclusion: The modest overlap among neurocognition, negative symptoms, and social and role functioning indicates that these domains make substantially separate contributions to CHR individuals.Schizophrenia Bulletin 02/2014; · 8.80 Impact Factor