[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The paper concerns a due-date matching problem in single-stage manufacturing systems with limited production-inventory buffering capacity. The objective is to determine parts' release times so as to minimize a weighted sum of the discrepancies between products' completion times and given due dates. This scheduling problem is formulated as an optimal control problem whose "plant" is modeled by a deterministic queue with finite output buffer, its controls are the release times, and its associated cost function penalizes products' earliness as well as tardiness. Although the optimal control problem appears to be nonconvex and nondifferentiable, we show that it is equivalent to a differentiable, convex programming problem with linear constraints. The problem may have a large number of variables and inequalities, but we decompose it into a finite sequence of one-dimensional problems. We then develop an algorithm for computing the optimal controls and demonstrate its efficacy by means of computational examples.
Decision and Control, 2002, Proceedings of the 41st IEEE Conference on; 01/2003
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pharmacological treatment of dementia addresses two main clinical features of the disease: cognitive deterioration with predominantly memory loss and behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPSD). While cholinesterase inhibitors are recommended in an attempt to delay memory loss and disability, what should be considered the most appropriate pharmacological treatment for BPSD has remained questionable. Antipsychotic medications, conventional and atypical agents, have been increasingly utilized in clinical practice but only a small number of clinical studies have investigated their relative cost-benefit ratio. This review focuses on the safety of atypical and conventional antipsychotics when used in patients with BPSD. Overall, atypical and conventional antipsychotics are associated with a similarly increased risk for all-cause mortality and cerebrovascular events. Relative to atypical agents users, patients being treated with conventional antipsychotics have an increased incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and extrapyramidal symptoms. Conversely, users of atypical antipsychotics are exposed to an increased risk of venous thromboembolism and aspiration pneumonia. Also, metabolic effects (i.e. increased risk of diabetes, weight gain) have consistently been documented in clinical studies with atypical antipsychotics, although this effect tends to be attenuated with advancing age and in elderly patients with dementia. Antipsychotics, both conventional and atypical, should be used with caution only when nonpharmacologic approaches have failed to adequately control BPSD. More effective interventions are necessary to improve postmarket drug safety in vulnerable populations.
Pharmacological Research 11/2008; 59(1):1-12. DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2008.09.017 · 3.98 Impact Factor
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