Little is known concerning possible hazards of maternal use of the recently introduced antidepressant drugs with noradrenergic and varying serotonergic activity (serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor [SNRI]/noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor [NRI] drugs). Using the Swedish Medical Birth Registry, we identified 732 women who had used SNRI/NRI drugs in early pregnancy. Maternal characteristics were studied as well as delivery outcome: pregnancy duration, birth weight, neonatal diagnoses, infant deaths, and congenital malformations. Comparisons were made with all deliveries in the population (n = 860,215) after adjustment for identified confounders, and risks were expressed as odds ratios or (when numbers were low) as risk ratios. Women using SNRI/NRI deviated from other women by being older, more often having their first infant, being more extensive smokers, having a higher body mass index, and more often being born within Sweden. These characteristics, like the pattern of concomitant drug use, resembled much those of women using selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) drugs. The rate of preterm births was significantly increased (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-2.15), and neonatal symptoms such as respiratory problems, low Apgar score, hypoglycemia, and neonatal convulsions showed a similar pattern as seen after maternal SSRI treatment. We found no increased risk for stillbirths or congenital malformations. Delivery outcome after exposure to SNRI/NRI drugs resembles much what has been described after use of SSRI drugs. No signs of teratogenicity were found.
"A report from the Bupropion Pregnancy Registry maintained by the drug manufacturer documented birth outcomes among 1,213 infants with first trimester bupropion exposure, and showed no increase in the risk of any congenital malformation compared with other antidepressant exposures in the first trimester, or with bupropion exposure outside of the first trimester.121 Thus far, studies of venlafaxine and mirtazapine have not shown increased risk of congenital malformations.95,127,128 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In pregnant women with major depression, the overarching goal of treatment is to achieve or maintain maternal euthymia, thus limiting both maternal and fetal exposure to the harmful effects of untreated or incompletely treated depression. However, the absence of uniformly effective therapies with guaranteed obstetric and fetal safety makes the treatment of major depression during pregnancy among the most formidable of clinical challenges. Clinicians and patients are still faced with conflicting data and expert opinion regarding the reproductive safety of antidepressants in pregnancy, as well as large gaps in our understanding of the effectiveness of most antidepressants and nonpharmacological alternatives for treating antenatal depression. In this paper, we provide a clinically focused review of the available information on potential maternal and fetal risks of untreated maternal depression during pregnancy, the effectiveness of interventions for maternal depression during pregnancy, and potential obstetric, fetal, and neonatal risks associated with antenatal antidepressant use.
Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety 09/2014; 6:109-29. DOI:10.2147/DHPS.S43308
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the relationship between antidepressant use in pregnancy and low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB).
We searched English and non-English language articles via PubMed, CINAHL and PsychINFO (from their start dates through December 1st, 2012). We used the following keywords and their combinations: antidepressant, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), pregnancy, antenatal, prenatal, birthweight, birth weight, preterm, prematurity, gestational age, fetal growth restriction, intrauterine growth restriction, and small-for-gestational age. Published studies were considered eligible if they examined exposure to antidepressant medication use during pregnancy and reported data on at least one birth outcome of interest: PTB (<37 weeks gestation) or LBW (<2500 g). Of the 222 reviewed studies, 28 published studies met the selection criteria.
Two authors independently extracted study characteristics from eligible studies.
Using random-effects models, antidepressant use in pregnancy was significantly associated with LBW (RR: 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21-1.70) and PTB (RR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.52-1.88). Studies varied widely in design, populations, control groups and methods. There was a high level of heterogeneity as measured by I2 statistics for both outcomes examined. The relationship between antidepressant exposure in pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes did not differ significantly when taking into account drug type (SSRI vs. other or mixed) or study design (prospective vs. retrospective). There was a significant association between antidepressant exposure and PTB for different types of control status used (depressed, mixed or nondepressed).
Antidepressant use during pregnancy significantly increases the risk for LBW and PTB.
General hospital psychiatry 10/2013; 36(1). DOI:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2013.08.002 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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