Article

Maternal family history of Alzheimer's disease predisposes to reduced brain glucose metabolism.

Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, 560 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 11/2007; 104(48):19067-72. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0705036104
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Having a parent affected with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a risk factor for developing AD among cognitively normal subjects. We examined whether cognitively normal subjects with a parental family history of AD show cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) reductions consistent with AD as compared with those without a family history and whether there are parent gender effects. Forty-nine 50- to 80-year-old normal subjects were examined who received clinical, neuropsychological, and 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-positron emission tomography examinations, including 16 subjects with a maternal (FHm) and eight with a paternal (FHp) family history of AD and 25 with no family history (FH(-)). FH groups were comparable for demographic and neuropsychological measures. As compared with both FH(-) and FHp groups, FHm subjects showed CMRglc reductions in the same regions as clinically affected AD patients, involving the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, parietotemporal and frontal cortices, and medial temporal lobes (P < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). These effects remained significant after accounting for possible risk factors for AD, including age, gender, education, apolipoprotein E genotype, and subjective memory complaints. No CMRglc differences were found between FHp and FH(-) subjects. This study shows a relationship between reduced CMRglc in AD-vulnerable brain regions and a maternal family history of AD in cognitively normal individuals.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
70 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inflammation is observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) subject brains. Inflammation-relevant genes are increasingly implicated in AD genetic studies, and inflammatory cytokines to some extent even function as peripheral biomarkers. What underlies AD inflammation is unclear, but no "foreign" agent has been implicated. This suggests that internally produced damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMPs) molecules may drive inflammation in AD. A more complete characterization and understanding of AD-relevant DAMPs could advance our understanding of AD and suggest novel therapeutic strategies. In this review, we consider the possibility that mitochondria, intracellular organelles that resemble bacteria in many ways, trigger and maintain chronic inflammation in AD subjects. Data supporting the possible nexus between AD-associated bioenergetic dysfunction are discussed.
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 11/2014; 6:311. · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Having a parent affected by late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major risk factor for cognitively normal (NL) individuals. This study explores the potential of PET with (18)F-FDG and the amyloid- β (Aβ) tracer (11)C-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) for detection of individual risk in NL adults with AD-parents. FDG- and PiB-PET was performed in 119 young to late-middle aged NL individuals including 80 NL with positive family history of AD (FH+) and 39 NL with negative family history of any dementia (FH-). The FH+ group included 50 subjects with maternal (FHm) and 30 with paternal family history (FHp). Individual FDG and PiB scans were Z scored on a voxel-wise basis relative to modality-specific reference databases using automated procedures and rated as positive or negative (+/-) for AD-typical abnormalities using predefined criteria. To determine the effect of age, the cohort was separated into younger (49 ± 9 y) and older (68 ± 5 y) groups relative to the median age (60 y). Among individuals of age >60 y, as compared to controls, NL FH+ showed a higher frequency of FDG+ scans vs. FH- (53% vs. 6% p < 0.003), and a trend for PiB+ scans (27% vs. 11%; p = 0.19). This effect was observed for both FHm and FHp groups. Among individuals of age ≤60 y, NL FHm showed a higher frequency of FDG+ scans (29%) compared to FH- (5%, p = 0.04) and a trend compared to FHp (11%) (p = 0.07), while the distribution of PiB+ scans was not different between groups. In both age cohorts, FDG+ scans were more frequent than PiB+ scans among NL FH+, especially FHm (p < 0.03). FDG-PET was a significant predictor of FH+ status. Classification according to PiB status was significantly less successful. Automated analysis of FDG- and PiB-PET demonstrates higher rates of abnormalities in at-risk FH+ vs FH- subjects, indicating potentially ongoing early AD-pathology in this population. The frequency of metabolic abnormalities was higher than that of Aβ pathology in the younger cohort, suggesting that neuronal dysfunction may precede major aggregated Aβ burden in young NL FH+. Longitudinal follow-up is required to determine if the observed abnormalities predict future AD.
    Advances in Molecular Imaging 04/2014; 4(2):15-26.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological evidence linking diet, one of the most important modifiable environmental factors, and risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is rapidly increasing. Several studies have shown that higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MeDi) is associated with reduced risk of AD. This study examines the associations between high vs. lower adherence to a MeDi and structural MRI-based brain atrophy in key regions for AD in cognitively normal (NL) individuals with and without risk factors for AD.
    The journal of prevention of Alzheimer's disease. 06/2014; 1(1):23-32.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
0 Downloads
Available from
Jan 29, 2015