Maternal family history of Alzheimer's disease predisposes to reduced brain glucose metabolism.

Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, 560 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 11/2007; 104(48):19067-72. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0705036104
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Having a parent affected with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a risk factor for developing AD among cognitively normal subjects. We examined whether cognitively normal subjects with a parental family history of AD show cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) reductions consistent with AD as compared with those without a family history and whether there are parent gender effects. Forty-nine 50- to 80-year-old normal subjects were examined who received clinical, neuropsychological, and 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-positron emission tomography examinations, including 16 subjects with a maternal (FHm) and eight with a paternal (FHp) family history of AD and 25 with no family history (FH(-)). FH groups were comparable for demographic and neuropsychological measures. As compared with both FH(-) and FHp groups, FHm subjects showed CMRglc reductions in the same regions as clinically affected AD patients, involving the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, parietotemporal and frontal cortices, and medial temporal lobes (P < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). These effects remained significant after accounting for possible risk factors for AD, including age, gender, education, apolipoprotein E genotype, and subjective memory complaints. No CMRglc differences were found between FHp and FH(-) subjects. This study shows a relationship between reduced CMRglc in AD-vulnerable brain regions and a maternal family history of AD in cognitively normal individuals.

  • 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s13668-014-0111-5
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    ABSTRACT: Increased physical activity and higher adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet (MeDi) have been independently associated with reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Their association has not been investigated with the use of biomarkers. This study examines whether, among cognitively normal (NL) individuals, those who are less physically active and show lower MeDi adherence have brain biomarker abnormalities consistent with AD. Methods: Forty-five NL individuals (age 54 ± 11, 71% women) with complete leisure time physical activity (LTA), dietary information, and cross-sectional 3D T1-weigthed MRI, 11C-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans were examined. Voxel-wise multivariate partial least square (PLS) regression was used to examine the effects of LTA, MeDi and their interaction on brain biomarkers. Age, gender, ethnicity, education, caloric intake, BMI, family history of AD, Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, presence of hypertension and insulin resistance were examined as confounds. Subjects were dichotomized into more and less physically active (LTA+ vs. LTA-; n = 21 vs. 24), and into higher vs. lower MeDi adherence groups (n = 18 vs. 27) using published scoring methods. Spatial patterns of brain biomarkers that represented the optimal association between the images and the groups were generated for all modalities using voxel-wise multivariate Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. Results: Groups were comparable for clinical and neuropsychological measures. Independent effects of LTA and MeDi factors were observed in AD-vulnerable brain regions for all modalities (p < 0.001). Increased AD-burden (in particular higher Aβ load and lower glucose metabolism) were observed in LTA- compared to LTA+ subjects, and in MeDi- as compared to MeDi+ subjects. A gradient effect was observed for all modalities so that LTA+/MeDi+ subjects had the highest and LTA+/MeDi+ subjects had the lowest AD-burden (p < 0.001), although the LTA × MeDi interaction was significant only for FDG measures (p < 0.03). Adjusting for covariates did not attenuate these relationships. Conclusion: Lower physical activity and MeDi adherence were associated with increased brain AD-burden among NL individuals, in-dicating that lifestyle factors may modulate AD risk. Studies with larger samples and longitudinal evaluations are needed to determine the predictive power of the observed associations.
    Advances in Molecular Imaging 10/2014; 4:43-57. DOI:10.4236/ami.2014.44006
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    ABSTRACT: Having a parent affected by late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major risk factor for cognitively normal (NL) individuals. This study explores the potential of PET with (18)F-FDG and the amyloid- β (Aβ) tracer (11)C-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) for detection of individual risk in NL adults with AD-parents. FDG- and PiB-PET was performed in 119 young to late-middle aged NL individuals including 80 NL with positive family history of AD (FH+) and 39 NL with negative family history of any dementia (FH-). The FH+ group included 50 subjects with maternal (FHm) and 30 with paternal family history (FHp). Individual FDG and PiB scans were Z scored on a voxel-wise basis relative to modality-specific reference databases using automated procedures and rated as positive or negative (+/-) for AD-typical abnormalities using predefined criteria. To determine the effect of age, the cohort was separated into younger (49 ± 9 y) and older (68 ± 5 y) groups relative to the median age (60 y). Among individuals of age >60 y, as compared to controls, NL FH+ showed a higher frequency of FDG+ scans vs. FH- (53% vs. 6% p < 0.003), and a trend for PiB+ scans (27% vs. 11%; p = 0.19). This effect was observed for both FHm and FHp groups. Among individuals of age ≤60 y, NL FHm showed a higher frequency of FDG+ scans (29%) compared to FH- (5%, p = 0.04) and a trend compared to FHp (11%) (p = 0.07), while the distribution of PiB+ scans was not different between groups. In both age cohorts, FDG+ scans were more frequent than PiB+ scans among NL FH+, especially FHm (p < 0.03). FDG-PET was a significant predictor of FH+ status. Classification according to PiB status was significantly less successful. Automated analysis of FDG- and PiB-PET demonstrates higher rates of abnormalities in at-risk FH+ vs FH- subjects, indicating potentially ongoing early AD-pathology in this population. The frequency of metabolic abnormalities was higher than that of Aβ pathology in the younger cohort, suggesting that neuronal dysfunction may precede major aggregated Aβ burden in young NL FH+. Longitudinal follow-up is required to determine if the observed abnormalities predict future AD.
    Advances in Molecular Imaging 04/2014; 4(2):15-26. DOI:10.4236/ami.2014.42003

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