Long chain Acyl-CoA synthetase 3-mediated phosphatidylcholine synthesis is required for assembly of very low density lipoproteins in human hepatoma Huh7 cells
ABSTRACT Hepatocytes play a crucial role in regulating lipid metabolism by exporting cholesterol and triglyceride into plasma through secretion of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). VLDL production is also required for release of hepatitis C virus (HCV) from infected hepatocytes. Here, we show that long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 3 (ACSL3) plays a crucial role in secretion of VLDL and HCV from hepatocytes. In cultured human hepatoma Huh7 cells, ACSL3 is specifically required for incorporation of fatty acids into phosphatidylcholine. In cells receiving small interfering RNA targeting ACSL3, secretion of apolipoprotein B, the major protein component of VLDL, was inhibited and the lipoprotein was rapidly degraded. This inhibition in secretion was completely eliminated when these cells were treated with phosphatidylcholine. Treatment of cells with small interfering RNA targeting ACSL3 also inhibited secretion of HCV from Huh7-derived cells. These results identify ACSL3 as a new enzymatic target to limit VLDL secretion and HCV infection.
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important human pathogen that causes hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It imposes a serious problem to public health in the world as the population of chronically infected HCV patients who are at risk of progressive liver disease is projected to increase significantly in the next decades. However, the arrival of new antiviral molecules is progressively changing the landscape of hepatitis C treatment. The search for new anti-HCV therapies has also been a driving force to better understand how HCV interacts with its host, and major progresses have been made on the various steps of the HCV life cycle. Here, we review the most recent advances in the fast growing knowledge on HCV life cycle and interaction with host factors and pathways.Journal of Hepatology 11/2014; 61(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2014.06.031 · 10.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Lipids are stored within cells in lipid droplets (LDs). They consist of a core of neutral lipids surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids, predominantly phosphatidylcholine (PC). LDs are very dynamic and can rapidly change in size upon lipid uptake or release. These dynamics require a fast adaptation of LD surface. We have recently shown that two Lands cycle PC synthesizing enyzmes, LPCAT1 and LPCAT2 can localize to the LD surface.ResultsHere, we show that knock-down of both enzymes leads to an increase in LD size without changes in the total amount of neutral lipids, while interference with the de-novo Kennedy pathway PC biosynthesis is associated with changes in triacylglyceride synthesis. We show that function of LPCAT1 and 2 is conserved in Drosophila melanogaster by the ortholog CG32699. Furthermore we demonstrate that modulation of the LD pool by LPCAT1 influences the release of lipoprotein from liver cells.Conclusion Activity of the Kennedy pathway regulates the balance between phospholipids and neutral lipids, while the Lands cycle regulates lipid droplet size by regulating surface availability and influencing surface to volume ratio. Differences in lipid droplet size may account for differences in lipid dynamics and be relevant to understand lipid overload diseases.BMC Cell Biology 12/2014; 15(1):43. DOI:10.1186/s12860-014-0043-3 · 2.84 Impact Factor