Article

Kinematic analysis of swing in pro and amateur golfers

Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Univeristy of Florida, Gainesville, USA.
International Journal of Sports Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.37). 07/2008; 29(6):487-93. DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-989229
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT As golf grows in popularity, golf related injuries have increased. The purpose of this study was to calculate and compare upper body kinematics of healthy male golfers from different skill levels. Kinematic data were obtained from 18 professional, 18 low handicap, 18 mid handicap and 18 high handicap golfers with an optoelectronic system at 240 frames per second. Ten displacement parameters were calculated at address, peak of back swing and ball contact. Angular velocity parameters and respective temporal data were calculated during the downswing phase. Most parameters were significantly different between the higher skilled golfers (professional, low handicap) and the least skilled golfers (high handicap). At the peak of the swing, professionals produced the largest magnitudes for left shoulder horizontal adduction (125 +/- 6 degrees ), right shoulder external rotation (66 +/- 11 degrees ), and trunk rotation (60 +/- 7 degrees ). During the downswing, the professionals produced the largest angular velocities for the club shaft (2413 +/- 442 degrees /s), right elbow extension (854 +/- 150 degrees /s), right wrist (1183 +/- 299 degrees /s) and left wrist (1085 +/- 338 degrees /s). The results of this study show that improper mechanics of golf swing existed in middle and high handicap groups. These improper mechanics may contribute to golf related injuries.

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    • "Usually, 9 the variables used to measure swing outcome are ball 10 displacement, shot accuracy, club head velocity, and 11 club face angle, with performance being better when 12 golfers focus on these swing outcomes rather than a 13 given body movement [3]. To achieve these objectives, 14 the golfer applies extreme muscle strength [4] at maxi-15 mum ranges of motion [5], and with high-velocity joint 16 movement [6] [7]. The repeated execution of the swing 17 during a round of golf can help to explain the high in-18 "
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    • "swing kinematics in different groups of golfers (Egret et al., 2006; Zheng et al., 2008a; 2008b; Tsai et al., 2010; Horan et al., 2011), assess the effect of an intervention on swing kinematics (Lephart et al., 2007), and examine factors thought to be important for golf performance and risk of injury (Myers et al., 2008; Horan et al., 2010). However, an acknowledged limitation of optoelectronic systems is that measurements are typically confined to an indoor laboratory environment, which may impose constraints on how the golfer swings the club compared to when playing or practising outdoors. "
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    • "However, to gain further insight into the control strategy used during the golf swing, a more detailed examination of the dynamics of the head, thorax, and pelvis is warranted. Sports scientists and biomechanists have frequently used the amplitude and timing of three-dimensional (3D) peak velocity (Lindsay et al., 2002; Myers et al., 2008; Zheng et al., 2008) as well as total speed of segment movement (Evans et al., 2008; Tinmark et al., 2010) to describe golf swing dynamics. However, these two measures have not been used in conjunction, and therefore interpretation of speed and velocity of individual body segments performing the same task may not be consistent. "
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