Kinematic analysis of swing in pro and amateur golfers.
ABSTRACT As golf grows in popularity, golf related injuries have increased. The purpose of this study was to calculate and compare upper body kinematics of healthy male golfers from different skill levels. Kinematic data were obtained from 18 professional, 18 low handicap, 18 mid handicap and 18 high handicap golfers with an optoelectronic system at 240 frames per second. Ten displacement parameters were calculated at address, peak of back swing and ball contact. Angular velocity parameters and respective temporal data were calculated during the downswing phase. Most parameters were significantly different between the higher skilled golfers (professional, low handicap) and the least skilled golfers (high handicap). At the peak of the swing, professionals produced the largest magnitudes for left shoulder horizontal adduction (125 +/- 6 degrees ), right shoulder external rotation (66 +/- 11 degrees ), and trunk rotation (60 +/- 7 degrees ). During the downswing, the professionals produced the largest angular velocities for the club shaft (2413 +/- 442 degrees /s), right elbow extension (854 +/- 150 degrees /s), right wrist (1183 +/- 299 degrees /s) and left wrist (1085 +/- 338 degrees /s). The results of this study show that improper mechanics of golf swing existed in middle and high handicap groups. These improper mechanics may contribute to golf related injuries.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives: The review paper addresses current interests among golfers emphasizing importance of physical improvement specifically on flexibility, balance and stability, and strength and power. Design: The review paper contains two different perspectives of golf literature, and establishes evidence-based training design. Methods: Golf biomechanics has been investigated scientifically over several decades to identify the vital components of superior golf swing mechanism from various levels of golfers and computer simulations. This paper introduces two aspects of an up-to-date literature; 1) performance-based research on driving/shot performance and its variability, and 2) clinical-based research specifically on low back stress, spinal stabilization mechanism, and trunk/spinal muscular activation. The final part of the paper addresses the appropriate training design for golfers. Results: Both performance and clinical aspects of information are well established to guide evidence-based training for golfers. Conclusion: The recommendations are specifically for flexibility and resistance training to enhance overall physical fitness for golf performance.Journal of Trainology. 10/2013; 2(2):23-32.
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To quantify the effect of an 8-week isolated core training programme on selected ball and club parameters during the golf swing and also the variability of these measures. METHODS: 36 club-level golfers were randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 18) or control (n = 18) group. The exercise group participated in an 8-week core training programme which included 8 basic exercises. Both groups continued with their normal activity levels including golf. Baseline and post-intervention measurements included club-head speed, backspin, sidespin, and timed core endurance. RESULTS: Baseline measures for club-head speed, backspin, sidespin and the core endurance test were 79.9 ± 8.4 mph, 3930 ± 780 rpm, 1410 ± 610 rpm and 91 ± 56 s, and 77.6 ± 8.8 mph, 3740 ± 910 rpm, 1290 ± 730 rpm and 69 ± 55 s, for the intervention and control group, respectively. The effect of our core training, when compared to control, was a likely small improvement in club-head speed (3.6%; 90% confidence limits ± 2.7%) and a very likely small improvement in muscular endurance (61%; ± 33%). The effect on backspin (5%; ± 10%) and sidespin (- 6%; ± 20%) was unclear. Baseline variability for club-head speed, backspin and sidespin (based on 10 swings per golfer) was 5.7 ± 5.3%, 43 ± 19%, 140 ± 180%, and 6.5 ± 5.3%, 53 ± 53%, 170 ± 130% for the intervention and control group, respectively. The effect of the intervention on within-subject variability was a moderate decrease for club-head speed, a small decrease for backspin and a small increase for sidespin, when compared with control. CONCLUSIONS: The benefits achieved from our isolated core training programme are comparable with those from other studies.Medicine and science in sports and exercise 05/2013; · 4.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to quantify trunk axial rotation and angular acceleration in pitching and batting of elite baseball players. Healthy professional baseball pitchers (n = 40) and batters (n = 40) were studied. Reflective markers attached to each athlete were tracked at 240 Hz with an eight-camera automated digitizing system. Trunk axial rotation was computed as the angle between the pelvis and the upper trunk in the transverse plane. Trunk angular acceleration was the second derivative of axial rotation. Maximum trunk axial rotation (55 +/- 6 degrees) and angular acceleration (11,600 +/- 3,100 degrees/s2) in pitching occurred before ball release, approximately at the instant the front foot landed. Maximum trunk axial rotation (46 +/- 9 degrees) and angular acceleration (7,200 +/- 2,800 degrees/s2) in batting occurred in the follow-through after ball contact. Thus, the most demanding instant for the trunk and spine was near front foot contact for pitching and after ball contact for batting.Sports Biomechanics 11/2013; 12(4):324-33. · 0.74 Impact Factor