As golf grows in popularity, golf related injuries have increased. The purpose of this study was to calculate and compare upper body kinematics of healthy male golfers from different skill levels. Kinematic data were obtained from 18 professional, 18 low handicap, 18 mid handicap and 18 high handicap golfers with an optoelectronic system at 240 frames per second. Ten displacement parameters were calculated at address, peak of back swing and ball contact. Angular velocity parameters and respective temporal data were calculated during the downswing phase. Most parameters were significantly different between the higher skilled golfers (professional, low handicap) and the least skilled golfers (high handicap). At the peak of the swing, professionals produced the largest magnitudes for left shoulder horizontal adduction (125 +/- 6 degrees ), right shoulder external rotation (66 +/- 11 degrees ), and trunk rotation (60 +/- 7 degrees ). During the downswing, the professionals produced the largest angular velocities for the club shaft (2413 +/- 442 degrees /s), right elbow extension (854 +/- 150 degrees /s), right wrist (1183 +/- 299 degrees /s) and left wrist (1085 +/- 338 degrees /s). The results of this study show that improper mechanics of golf swing existed in middle and high handicap groups. These improper mechanics may contribute to golf related injuries.
"Usually, 9 the variables used to measure swing outcome are ball 10 displacement, shot accuracy, club head velocity, and 11 club face angle, with performance being better when 12 golfers focus on these swing outcomes rather than a 13 given body movement . To achieve these objectives, 14 the golfer applies extreme muscle strength  at maxi-15 mum ranges of motion , and with high-velocity joint 16 movement  . The repeated execution of the swing 17 during a round of golf can help to explain the high in-18 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The University of Western Ontario Questionnaire for Musculoskeletal Conditions in Senior Golfers (MSK Golfers) was developed in Canada because of a lack of knowledge concerning musculoskeletal conditions directly related to golf play and warm-up, although the high injury incidence in golf practice. This lack of epidemiological measures also exists for the Portuguese golf population.
The purpose of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the MSK Golfers questionnaire into Portuguese and to test its construct validity and reproducibility.METHODS: The MSK Golfers was translated from English to Portuguese and tested for psychometric properties. Sixty-one golfers, aged between 14 and 70 years and with at least 1 year of practice in golf, were recruited. The validity of the MSK Golfers was assessed by evaluating data quality (missing, floor and ceiling effects). Reproducibility analysis included intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) (2,1) and Cohen's Kappa coefficient.RESULTS: The ICC values for continuous items ranged from 0.634 to 0.998 with the exception of one item on golf activity. Kappa statistics for the categorical items ranged between 0.714 and 1.00.
The Portuguese version of the MSK Golfers, including playing characteristics and warm-up patterns of golfers, showed a high reliability for a golfing population with an age range of 14 to 70 years.
Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation 12/2014; DOI:10.3233/BMR-140582 · 0.71 Impact Factor
"swing kinematics in different groups of golfers (Egret et al., 2006; Zheng et al., 2008a; 2008b; Tsai et al., 2010; Horan et al., 2011), assess the effect of an intervention on swing kinematics (Lephart et al., 2007), and examine factors thought to be important for golf performance and risk of injury (Myers et al., 2008; Horan et al., 2010). However, an acknowledged limitation of optoelectronic systems is that measurements are typically confined to an indoor laboratory environment, which may impose constraints on how the golfer swings the club compared to when playing or practising outdoors. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Field-based methods of evaluating three-dimensional (3D) swing kinematics offer coaches and researchers the opportunity to assess golfers in context-specific environments. The purpose of this study was to establish the inter-trial, between-tester, between-location, and between-day repeatability of thorax and pelvis kinematics during the downswing using an electromagnetic motion capture system. Two experienced testers measured swing kinematics in 20 golfers (handicap < or =14 strokes) on consecutive days in an indoor and outdoor location. Participants performed five swings with each of two clubs (five-iron and driver) at each test condition. Repeatability of 3D kinematic data was evaluated by computing the coefficient of multiple determination (CMD) and the systematic error (SE). With the exception of pelvis forward bend for between-day and between-tester conditions, CMDs exceeded 0.854 for all variables, indicating high levels of overall waveform repeatability across conditions. When repeatability was compared across conditions using MANOVA, the lowest CMDs and highest SEs were found for the between-tester and between-day conditions. The highest CMDs were for the inter-trial and between-location conditions. The absence of significant differences in CMDs between these two conditions supports this method of analysing pelvis and thorax kinematics in different environmental settings without unduly affecting repeatability.
"However, to gain further insight into the control strategy used during the golf swing, a more detailed examination of the dynamics of the head, thorax, and pelvis is warranted. Sports scientists and biomechanists have frequently used the amplitude and timing of three-dimensional (3D) peak velocity (Lindsay et al., 2002; Myers et al., 2008; Zheng et al., 2008) as well as total speed of segment movement (Evans et al., 2008; Tinmark et al., 2010) to describe golf swing dynamics. However, these two measures have not been used in conjunction, and therefore interpretation of speed and velocity of individual body segments performing the same task may not be consistent. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding the dynamics of upper body motion during the downswing is an important step in determining the control strategies required for a successful and repeatable golf swing. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between head, thorax, and pelvis motion, during the downswing of professional golfers. Three-dimensional data were collected for 14 male professional golfers (age 27 +/- 8 years, golf-playing experience 13.3 +/- 8 years) using an optical motion analysis system. The amplitude and timing of peak speed and peak velocities were calculated for the head, thorax, and pelvis during the downswing. Cross-correlation analysis was used to examine the strength of coupling and phasing between and within segments. The results indicated the thorax segment had the highest peak speeds and peak velocities for the upper body during the downswing. A strong coupling relationship was evident between the thorax and pelvis (average R2 = 0.92 across all directions), while the head and thorax showed a much more variable relationship (average R2 = 0.76 across all directions). The strong coupling between the thorax and pelvis is possibly a method for simplifying the motor control strategy used during the downswing, and a way of ensuring consistent motor patterns.
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