Salvage procedures to achieve continence after failed bladder exstrophy repair.
ABSTRACT We assessed the results from a single exstrophy center of salvage continence surgery after failed staged reconstruction for bladder exstrophy.
A total of 32 patients with bladder exstrophy had undergone salvage continence procedures. Indications for surgery included incontinence due to poor bladder capacity or failed bladder neck repair, and upper tract deterioration. Continence was defined according to the International Children's Continence Society as continent, intermittently incontinent and continuously incontinent.
A total of 29 patients (91%) are continent, 3 (9%) are intermittently incontinent and none is continuously incontinent. One patient is continent after bladder augmentation and urethral clean intermittent catheterization. Two patients are continent and 1 is intermittently incontinent after bladder augmentation and modified Young-Dees bladder neck repair using urethral clean intermittent catheterization. One patient is continent using clean intermittent catheterization through a continent cutaneous diversion into a bladder substitution. A total of 19 patients are continent after bladder neck closure, bladder augmentation and continent cutaneous diversion using clean intermittent catheterization. Four patients are continent after cutaneous urinary diversion. Two are continent and 2 are intermittently incontinent after a Mainz II pouch.
The majority of patients can still achieve continence following failed staged repair. Patients who have a low bladder leak pressure and who tolerate urethral catheterization can be consistently dry with bladder augmentation and bladder neck repair, which is a viable alternative to bladder neck closure, bladder augmentation and continent cutaneous diversion. Cutaneous urinary diversion has a role in selected patients. Mainz II pouch has not yielded consistent results. With better patient selection and increasing experience within specialist exstrophy centers fewer patients should require salvage continent surgery in the future.