Pediatric acute lung injury.

Medical Center of Coburg, Children's Hospital, Ketschendorferstr. 33, 96450 Coburg, Bayern, Germany.
Paediatric respiratory reviews (Impact Factor: 2.79). 01/2008; 8(4):348-62. DOI: 10.1016/j.prrv.2007.03.001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Among ventilated children, the incidence of acute lung injury (ALI) was 9%; of that latter group 80% developed the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The population-based prevalence of pediatric ARDS was 5.5 cases/100.000 inhabitants. Underlying diseases in children were septic shock (34%), respiratory syncytial virus infections (16%), bacterial pneumonia (15%), near-drowning 9%, and others. Mortality ranged from 18% to 27% for ALI (including ALI-non ARDS and ARDS) and from 29% to 50% for ARDS. Mortality was only 3%-11% in children with ALI-non ARDS. As risk factors, oxygenation indices and multi-organ failure have been identified. New insights into the pathophysiology (for example the interplay between intraalveolar coagulation/fibrinolysis and inflammation and the genetic polymorphism for the angiotensin-converting enzyme) offer new therapeutic options. Lung protective mechanical ventilation with optimal lung recruitment is the mainstay of supportive therapy. New therapeutic modalities refer to corticosteroid and surfactant treatment. Well-designed follow up studies are needed.

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