Two‐Dose versus Monthly Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria with Sulfadoxine‐Pyrimethamine in HIV‐Seropositive Pregnant Zambian Women

Center for International Health and Development, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02118, USA.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6). 01/2008; 196(11):1585-94. DOI: 10.1086/522142
Source: PubMed


Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) reduces placental infection, maternal anemia, and low birth weight (LBW). However, the optimal dosing regimen in settings in which human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is highly prevalent among pregnant women remains controversial.
We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of IPTp comparing the standard 2-dose sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) regimen with monthly IPTp among a cohort of HIV-positive pregnant Zambian women. Primary outcomes included placental malaria (by smear and histology) and maternal peripheral parasitemia at delivery.
There were no differences between monthly IPTp (n=224) and standard IPTp (n=232) in placental malaria by histopathology (26% vs. 29%; relative risk [RR], 0.90 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.64-1.26]) or placental parasitemia (2% vs. 4%; RR, 0.55 [95% CI, 0.17-1.79]). There also were no differences in maternal anemia, stillbirths, preterm delivery, LBW, or all-cause mortality of infants at 6 weeks.
In an area of mesoendemicity in Zambia, monthly SP IPTp was not more efficacious than the standard 2-dose regimen for the prevention of placental malaria or adverse birth outcomes. IPTp policy recommendations need to take into account local malaria transmission patterns and the prevalence of HIV. identifier: NCT00270530.

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    • "In vivo IPTp-SP efficacy studies in pregnant Zambian women are lacking. There is one published study, a randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of 2 dose versus monthly IPTp-SP, but this study focused on HIV-positive women and was done in 2003–2004 before resistance was firmly entrenched [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) decreases adverse effects of malaria during pregnancy. Zambia implemented its IPTp-SP programme in 2003. Emergence of SP-resistant Plasmodium falciparum threatens this strategy. The quintuple mutant haplotype (substitutions in N51I, C59R, S108N in dhfr and A437G and K540E in dhps genes), is associated with SP treatment failure in non-pregnant patients with malaria. This study examined efficacy of IPTp-SP and presence of the quintuple mutant among pregnant women in Mansa, Zambia. Methods In Mansa, an area with high malaria transmission, HIV-negative pregnant women presenting to two antenatal clinics for the 1st dose of IPTp-SP with asymptomatic parasitaemia were enrolled and microscopy for parasitaemia was done weekly for five weeks. Outcomes were parasitological failure and adequate parasitological response (no parasitaemia during follow-up). Polymerase chain reaction assays were employed to distinguish recrudescence from reinfection, and identify molecular markers of SP resistance. Survival analysis included those who had reinfection and incomplete follow-up (missed at least one follow-up). Results Of the 109 women included in the study, 58 (53%) completed all follow-up, 34 (31%) had incomplete follow-up, and 17 (16%) were lost to follow-up after day 0. Of those who had complete follow-up, 15 (26%, 95% confidence interval [CI] [16–38]) had parasitological failure. For the 92 women included in the survival analysis, median age was 20 years (interquartile range [IQR] 18–22), median gestational age was 22 weeks (IQR range 20–24), and 57% were primigravid. There was no difference in time to failure in primigravid versus multigravid women. Of the 84 women with complete haplotype data for the aforementioned loci of the dhfr and dhps genes, 53 (63%, 95% CI [50–70]) had quintuple mutants (two with an additional mutation in A581G of dhps). Among women with complete follow-up and quintuple mutants, 22% had parasitological failure versus 0% without (p = 0.44). Conclusions While underpowered, this study found 26% failure rates of SP given the moderate prevalence of the quintuple mutant haplotype. Despite the presence of resistance, SP retained some efficacy in clearing parasites in pregnant women, and may remain a viable option for IPTp in Zambia.
    Malaria Journal 06/2014; 13(1):227. DOI:10.1186/1475-2875-13-227 · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    • "Histopathological endpoints are well established for clinical trials to treat chronic hepatitis B viral infection [16], to prevent renal allograft rejection [17], and may also function as surrogates for survival following chemotherapy [18]. During malaria, placental histopathology is strongly associated with birth outcomes [19-21], and has been utilized in a limited number of preventative trials: improved pathology was seen in two trials of intermittent presumptive therapy (IPT) compared to placebo [22,23], whereas no histological differences were observed with vitamin A administration [24] or in two trials examining differing IPT regimens [25,26]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Data on efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) to treat Plasmodium falciparum during pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. A recent open label, randomized controlled trial in Mbarara, Uganda demonstrated that artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is not inferior to quinine to treat uncomplicated malaria in pregnancy. Haemozoin can persist in the placenta following clearance of parasites, however there is no data whether ACT can influence the amount of haemozoin or the dynamics of haemozoin clearance. Women attending antenatal clinics with weekly screening and positive blood smears by microscopy were eligible to participate in the trial and were followed to delivery. Placental haemozoin deposition and inflammation were assessed by histology. To determine whether AL was associated with increased haemozoin clearance, population haemozoin clearance curves were calculated based on the longitudinal data. Of 152 women enrolled in each arm, there were 97 and 98 placental biopsies obtained in the AL and quinine arms, respectively. AL was associated with decreased rates of moderate to high grade haemozoin deposition (13.3% versus 25.8%), which remained significant after correcting for gravidity, time of infection, re-infection, and parasitaemia. The amount of haemozoin proportionately decreased with the duration of time between treatment and delivery and this decline was greater in the AL arm. Haemozoin was not detected in one third of biopsies and the prevalence of inflammation was low, reflecting the efficacy of antenatal care with early detection and prompt treatment of malaria. Placental haemozoin deposition was decreased in the AL arm demonstrating a relationship between pharmacological properties of drug to treat antenatal malaria and placental pathology at delivery. Histology may be considered an informative outcome for clinical trials to evaluate malaria control in pregnancy. Trial registration REGISTRY:
    Malaria Journal 05/2012; 11(1):150. DOI:10.1186/1475-2875-11-150 · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    • "The administration of SP in the first trimester is not advised because of potential teratogenic effect on the foetus [7]. Some reports suggest that monthly IPTp-SP may be more appropriate in areas that are hyper-and holoendemic for malaria [25] [26]. Parasitological failure rate of 24.4% on day 14 of SP has been reported among children aged 6 months to five years with acute uncomplicated malaria in Southwest Nigeria [27]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTP-SP) is a key strategy in the control of malaria in pregnancy. However, reports of increasing level of resistance to SP using nonpregnant populations have made it imperative for the continuous monitoring of the efficacy of SP in pregnant women. This study assessed using microscopy, monthly dosing and the standard two-dose regimen among 259 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Lagos, Nigeria that consented 122 in the two-dose arm (Arm A) and 137 in the monthly dose arm (Arm B). Baseline parasitaemia in the two groups was 5 (4.1%) and 3 (2.2%) in Arms A and B, respectively. Few of the women developed parasitaemia after the initial SP dose in Arms A 4 (3.3%) and B 2 (1.5%). However, none of the women had malaria infection after the second dose in both Arms. Although IPTP-SP is suggestive of protecting the women from malaria infection, there was no significant difference observed between the two dosing schemes.
    10/2011; 2011(5267):932895. DOI:10.4061/2011/932895
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