Two-dose versus monthly intermittent preventive treatment of malaria with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in HIV-seropositive pregnant Zambian women.

Center for International Health and Development, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02118, USA.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 5.78). 01/2008; 196(11):1585-94. DOI: 10.1086/522142
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) reduces placental infection, maternal anemia, and low birth weight (LBW). However, the optimal dosing regimen in settings in which human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is highly prevalent among pregnant women remains controversial.
We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of IPTp comparing the standard 2-dose sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) regimen with monthly IPTp among a cohort of HIV-positive pregnant Zambian women. Primary outcomes included placental malaria (by smear and histology) and maternal peripheral parasitemia at delivery.
There were no differences between monthly IPTp (n=224) and standard IPTp (n=232) in placental malaria by histopathology (26% vs. 29%; relative risk [RR], 0.90 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.64-1.26]) or placental parasitemia (2% vs. 4%; RR, 0.55 [95% CI, 0.17-1.79]). There also were no differences in maternal anemia, stillbirths, preterm delivery, LBW, or all-cause mortality of infants at 6 weeks.
In an area of mesoendemicity in Zambia, monthly SP IPTp was not more efficacious than the standard 2-dose regimen for the prevention of placental malaria or adverse birth outcomes. IPTp policy recommendations need to take into account local malaria transmission patterns and the prevalence of HIV. identifier: NCT00270530.

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    ABSTRACT: Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) decreases adverse effects of malaria during pregnancy. Zambia implemented its IPTp-SP programme in 2003. Emergence of SP-resistant Plasmodium falciparum threatens this strategy. The quintuple mutant haplotype (substitutions in N51I, C59R, S108N in dhfr and A437G and K540E in dhps genes), is associated with SP treatment failure in non-pregnant patients with malaria. This study examined efficacy of IPTp-SP and presence of the quintuple mutant among pregnant women in Mansa, Zambia.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) is being implemented in most malaria endemic countries as a standard two-doses regimen as it reduces the risk of low birth weight (LBW) and the prevalence of maternal anaemia. Nevertheless, where the risk of infection close to delivery is high because of intense transmission, a third IPTp-SP dose may further reduce the negative effects of malaria on pregnancy outcome. Methods Pregnant women in the 2nd or 3rd trimester were randomized to receive either 2 (SP2) or 3 doses (SP3) of SP. Trained field workers paid home visits to the women for drug administration according to a predefined drug delivery schedule. Women were encouraged to attend their scheduled ANC visits and to deliver at the health facilities where the new-born was weighed. The prevalence of LBW (<2500 g), severe anaemia (Hb < 8 g/dL) and premature birth was analysed using intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analysis. Results Data from 1274 singleton pregnancies were analysed (641 in the SP3 and 633 in the SP2 group). The uptake of the intervention appeared to be low. Though the prevalence of LBW in both intervention groups was similar (adjusted Incident Rate Ratio, AIRR = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.69-1.24) in the ITT analysis, the risk of severe anaemia was significantly lower in the SP3 group compared to the SP2 group (AIRR = 0.38, 95%CI: 0.16 - 0.90). The PP analysis showed a trend of reduced risk of LBW, severe anaemia and premature delivery in the SP3 group, albeit the difference between two and three IPTp-SP did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion The risk of LBW and severe anaemia tended to be lower in the SP3 group, though this was not statistically significant, probably due to the low uptake of the intervention which reduced the power of the study. Further studies are needed for establishing whether a third SP dose has a real benefit in preventing the negative effects of malaria in pregnancy in settings where transmission is markedly seasonal.
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