Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection is common among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons, and HSV reactivation increases plasma and genital HIV-1 levels. We studied HIV-1 levels during HSV suppression in coinfected persons in a placebo-controlled crossover trial.
Twenty antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive HIV-1/HSV-2-seropositive men who have sex with men in Lima, Peru, with CD4 cell counts >200 cells/ microL were randomized to receive either valacyclovir at 500 mg twice daily or placebo for 8 weeks, after which they underwent a 2-week washout period and then received the alternative regimen for 8 weeks. Specimens included daily anogenital swabs (for HSV DNA polymerase chain reaction [PCR]), thrice weekly rectal mucosal secretions (for HIV-1 RNA and HSV DNA PCR) obtained by anoscopy, and weekly plasma (for HIV-1 RNA PCR). Outcomes were rectal and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels by treatment arm.
HIV-1 was detected in 73% of 844 rectal and 99% of 288 plasma specimens. HSV was detected in 29% and 4% of mucocutaneous specimens obtained during placebo and valacyclovir administration, respectively (P<.001). Valacyclovir resulted in a 0.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07-0.25; P=.0008; 33% decrease) log(10) copies/mL lower mean within-subject rectal HIV-1 level and a 0.33 (95% CI, 0.23-0.42; P<.0001; 53% decrease) log(10) copies/mL lower plasma HIV-1 level, compared with values for placebo.
Valacyclovir significantly reduces rectal and plasma HIV-1 levels in HIV-1/HSV-2-coinfected men. HSV suppression may provide clinical benefits to persons not receiving highly active ART as well as public health benefits.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the long-term effects of population-level HSV-2 infection on HIV incidence.
Data from a population-based cohort in south-western Uganda were used to estimate HIV incidence from 1990 to 2007. Stored blood samples were tested for HSV-2, and the impact of HSV-2 prevalence and incidence on HIV incidence was estimated by calculating population attributable fractions (PAFs). The association between population-level annual HIV incidence and annual HSV-2 incidence/prevalence was analysed using linear regression.
HIV incidence declined over time among men, from 8.72/1000 person-years (pyr) in 1990 to 4.85/1000 pyr in 2007 (P-trend <0.001). In contrast, there was no decline in HIV incidence among women (4.86/1000 pyr in 1990 to 6.74/1000 pyr in 2007, P-trend = 0.18). PAFs of incident HIV attributable to HSV-2 were high (60% in males; 70% in females). There was no evidence of an association between long-term trends in HIV incidence and HSV-2 prevalence or incidence.
Assuming a causal relationship, a substantial proportion of new HIV infections in this population are attributable to HSV-2. The study did not find an effect of HSV-2 prevalence/incidence on trends in HIV incidence. HIV incidence did not vary much during the study period. This may partly explain the lack of association.
Tropical Medicine & International Health 10/2013; 18(10):1257-66. DOI:10.1111/tmi.12176 · 2.33 Impact Factor
"Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is known to cause diseases of various severities, including mucocutaneous diseases, neonatal herpes and herpes encephalitis . Recent reports also suggest HSV infection could strongly increase risk for HIV infection . HSV has become one of the most common sexual transmitted diseases in U.S.A., U.K., French and other western societies   . "
"Recent studies have revealed that abnormal vaginal flora triggers the shedding of HSV and cytomegalovirus (CMV) in women genital tract [11,12]. On the other hand genital herpes infection is a major risk factor for acquisition and transmission of HIV via sexual contact [13,14]. Moreover, HIV copy number in female genital-tract discharge inversely correlates with lactobacilli counts in bacterial flora . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and the purpose of the study
The cervico-vaginal mucosa which is populated with microflora (mostly includes lactobacilli) is the portal of entry for sexually transmitted pathogens.
The in vitro anti-viral effect of vaginal and non-vaginal lactobacillus was evaluated using single cycle HIV-1 replication and HSV-2 plaque reduction assays. The XTT proliferation assay was used to monitor the cellular toxicity. The in vivo anti-HSV-1 activity was evaluated in BALB/c mouse model by monitoring skin lesion and immune response development.
Results and major conclusion
DMEM culture supernatant of L. Gasseri and L. fermentum (PH 7.3) did not show toxic effect but inhibited 50% of HIV replication at 12 and 31% concentrations, respectively. Co-culture of L. gasseri (1000 CFU/ target cell) showed mild cytotoxicity but inhibited 68% of HIV replication. The supernatant of L. crispatus inhibited 50% of HSV replication at 4% and also co-culture of L. gasseri, L. rhamnosus and L. crispatus revokes almost all of the HSV multiplication. Culture supernatants of L. gasseri and L. crispatus had significant virucidal effect against the HIV and HSV and inhibited HSV infection in a stage before viral entry to the target cells. Alive L. gasseri cells showed high potential for inhibiting HSV-1 infection in vivo condition. Current data indicates that lactobacilli supernatant encompasses components with neutralizing activity against HIV and HSV and it would be a determinant factor for viral diseases transmission and promising lead for anti-viral probiotic design.
DARU-JOURNAL OF FACULTY OF PHARMACY 10/2012; 20(1):53. DOI:10.1186/2008-2231-20-53 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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