Metformin is effective in achieving biochemical response in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) not responding to lifestyle interventions.
ABSTRACT Insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Pharmacological treatment of patients with NAFLD is still evolving. Insulin sensitizing drugs like metformin may be effective in these patients. Twenty five adult patients with NAFLD who did not achieve normalization of alanine transaminases (ALT) after 6 months of lifestyle interventions and UDCA were treated with metformin 500mg tid for 6 months. Insulin resistance was determined by HOMA- IR. Liver function tests were done monthly and patients were defined having no response, partial response or complete biochemical response depending on the change in ALT. Results were compared with 25 patients with NAFLD from the same cohort treated only with lifestyle interventions (disease controls).
Thirteen (52%) patients had class III (n = 5) or class IV (n = 8) disease amounting to histological NASH. Of these 13 patients none had severe inflammation and none had stage 4 fibrosis (cirrhosis). All 25 patients with NAFLD had insulin resistance in comparison to healthy controls. In comparison to disease controls (127.5 +/- 41.8 vs. 118 +/- 21.6 p = NS), all patients treated with metformin had partial biochemical response (mean ALT 122.2 +/- 26.8 vs 74.3 +/- 4.2 p < 0.01) and 14 (56%) of them achieved complete normalization of ALT.
Metformin is effective to achieve biochemical response in patients with NAFLD who do not respond to lifestyle interventions and UDCA.
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ABSTRACT: Metformin has been widely used as a first-line anti-diabetic medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). As a drug that primarily targets the liver, metformin suppresses hepatic glucose production (HGP), serving as the main mechanism by which metformin improves hyperglycemia of T2D. Biochemically, metformin suppresses gluconeogenesis and stimulates glycolysis. Metformin also inhibits glycogenolysis, which is a pathway that critically contributes to elevated HGP. While generating beneficial effects on hyperglycemia, metformin also improves insulin resistance and corrects dyslipidemia in patients with T2D. These beneficial effects of metformin implicate a role for metformin in managing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. As supported by the results from both human and animal studies, metformin improves hepatic steatosis and suppresses liver inflammation. Mechanistically, the beneficial effects of metformin on hepatic aspects are mediated through both adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent and AMPK-independent pathways. In addition, metformin is generally safe and may also benefit patients with other chronic liver diseases.02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11684-015-0384-0
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ABSTRACT: AbstrAct No treatment has been proven to be effective in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and/or steatohepatitis (NASH). Numerous studies have addressed this issue. However conclusive recommen-dations cannot be drawn solely from the currently available studies. Hence we performed this systematic review to determine which of the available therapeutic modalities are supported by adequate evidence in terms of decreasing the adverse clinical outcomes of interest. A specific strategy was utilized to perform a computerized literature search in MEDLINE; of which, a total of 375 studies were retrieved. According to current literature, modifying the potential risk factors such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, and poor diabetic control in all patients is considered the treatment of choice. Certain treatments can be recom-mended under special circumstances and some medications, although used clinically, are not supported by adequate evidence to be recom-mended for the treatment of NAFLD/NASH.
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ABSTRACT: Objective. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with obesity and insulin resistance (IR), key features of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Cytokeratin 18 fragments (M30) have been established as a serum marker for NASH. The insulin sensitizer metformin improves hepatic IR. This study evaluates the influence of MF on serologic NASH (sNASH) in patients with PCOS. Patients and Methods. In 89 patients, metabolic parameters, liver injury indicating fatty liver (LIFL), and M30 were assessed at baseline and after metformin treatment. Patients with initial IR were subdivided into dissolved (PCOS-exIR) and persistent IR (PCOS-PIR) after treatment and compared to an initially insulin sensitive PCOS group (PCOS-C). Results. Improvement of LIFL prevalence could be seen in PCOS-C and PCOS-exIR compared to PCOS-PIR (-19.4, resp., -12.0% versus 7.2%, Chi(2) = 29.5, P < 0.001) without change in sNASH prevalence. In PCOS-PIR, ALT levels increased significantly accompanied by a nominal, nonsignificant M30 increase. Conclusions. Metformin improves LIFL in subgroups of patients with PCOS without influencing sNASH. This could either indicate a missing effect of metformin on NAFLD or slowed disease progression. Further studies are needed to elucidate NAFLD in the context of PCOS and potential therapeutic options.International Journal of Endocrinology 01/2015; 2015:254169. DOI:10.1155/2015/254169 · 1.52 Impact Factor