Article

Anatomy of sodium hypochlorite accidents.

Division of Endodontics, University of Colorado, School of Dental Medicine, Aurora, USA.
Compendium of continuing education in dentistry (Jamesburg, N.J.: 1995) 11/2007; 28(10):544-6, 548, 550.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in various concentrations is the most widely used endodontic irrigant, but it can be an irritant to vital tissues. There are several reports about the complications of irrigation with NaOCl during root canal therapy. Most of the complications are the result of accidental extrusion of the solution from the apical foramen or accessory canals or perforations into the periapical area. This article is a review and comparison of all reported NaOCl accidents in the literature.

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction This study describes a case of eye burn induced by sodium hypochlorite used as an irrigant during root canal preparation. Methods A 24-year-old female endodontist was using an operating microscope during root canal treatment, and as the root canal was irrigated, the pressure cannula burst and the irrigant (3.5% sodium hypochlorite) came into direct contact with her left eye. She immediately sought ophthalmologic emergency care for pain, redness of the cornea, burning sensation, photophobia, intraocular pressure, and blurred vision. The initial treatment consisted of washing the eye with saline solution and administering analgesic and anti-inflammatory (steroid) medications. One day after the accident, a topical demulcent and hydroxypropyl medication were applied to the eyeball (conjunctiva), the eye was bandaged for 24 hours, and rest was prescribed for 7 days. Eight days later, a corneal ulcer was diagnosed, and antibiotic and anti-inflammatory (steroid) medications were used. Results Vision was restored without any sequelae 4 weeks after the accident. The endodontist was instructed to apply control medication (Lagricel; Sophia SA, Caracas, Venezuela) for 3 months and to return for ophthalmologic follow-up every 6 months. Conclusions Sodium hypochlorite is an effective antibacterial irrigant indicated for the treatment of root canal infections. The tissue cytotoxicity highlights the need to inform the patient of the risk factors of accidents and enhance care with individual protection equipment for the patient and the professional during clinical procedures.
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Root canal treatment forms an essential part of general dental practice. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most commonly used irrigant in endodontics due to its ability to dissolve organic soft tissues in the root canal system and its action as a potent antimicrobial agent. Although NaOCl accidents created by extrusion of the irrigant through root apices are relatively rare and are seldom life-threatening, they do create substantial morbidity when they occur. Methods To date, NaOCl accidents have only been published as isolated case reports. Although previous studies have attempted to summarise the symptoms involved in these case reports, there was no endeavour to analyse the distribution of soft tissue distribution in those reports. In this review, the anatomy of a classical NaOCl accident that involves facial swelling and ecchymosis is discussed. Results By summarising the facial manifestations presented in previous case reports, a novel hypothesis that involves intravenous infusion of extruded NaOCl into the facial vein via non-collapsible venous sinusoids within the cancellous bone is presented. Conclusions Understanding the mechanism involved in precipitating a classic NaOCl accident will enable the profession to make the best decision regarding the choice of irrigant delivery techniques in root canal débridement, and for manufacturers to design and improve their irrigation systems to achieve maximum safety and efficient cleanliness of the root canal system.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review and critical analysis of published data on irrigant extrusion to identify factors causing, affecting or predisposing to irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation of human mature permanent teeth. An electronic search was conducted in Cochrane Library, LILACS, PubMed, SciELO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge using a combination of the terms 'irrigant', 'rinse', 'extrusion', 'injection', 'complication', 'accident', 'iatrogenic', 'root canal', 'tooth' and 'endodontic'. Additional studies were identified by hand-searching of six endodontic journals and the relevant chapters of four endodontic textbooks, resulting in a total of 460 titles. No language restriction was imposed. After applying screening and strict eligibility criteria by two independent reviewers, 40 case reports and 10 ex vivo studies were included in the review. A lack of clinical studies focusing on irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation was evident. The reviewed case reports focused mainly on the clinical manifestations and management of the accidents and did not provide adequate details on the possible factors that may influence irrigant extrusion. The data from the included ex vivo studies were inconclusive due to major methodological limitations, such as not simulating the presence of periapical tissues and not assessing the validity of irrigant detection methods. The extensive variability in the protocols employed hindered quantitative synthesis. The choice of factors investigated in ex vivo studies seems not to have been driven by the available clinical evidence. These issues need to be addressed in future studies.
    International Endodontic Journal 11/2012; · 2.05 Impact Factor

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