The shoulder block: a new alternative to interscalene brachial plexus blockade for the control of postoperative shoulder pain.
ABSTRACT This report describes the development of the shoulder block, an alternative to interscalene brachial plexus blockade for the control of postoperative pain following shoulder surgery. Included is a review of the relevant anatomy of the shoulder joint and its associated structures. Two nerves provide the bulk of the innervation to this area: the suprascapular nerve and the axillary (circumflex) nerve. The shoulder block technique involves selective blockade of both of these nerves instead of general blockade of the entire brachial plexus via the interscalene route. The technique of Meier is used to block the suprascapular nerve in the supraspinous fossa. No descriptions of axillary nerve block were available in the literature, so a technique for blocking this nerve as it travels across the posterior surface of the humerus was developed and is described, along with a discussion of the author's initial clinical experience.
SourceAvailable from: Mohammad Waseem[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There has been an exponential growth in the volume of shoulder surgery in the last 2 decades and a very wide variety of anaesthetic techniques have emerged to provide anaesthesia and post-operative analgesia. In this article we examine current opinion, risks, benefits and practicalities of anaesthetic practice and the provision of post-operative analgesia for shoulder surgery.The Open Orthopaedics Journal 01/2013; 7:323-328. DOI:10.2174/1874325001307010323
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ABSTRACT: Axillary nerve block (ANB) was recently introduced along with suprascapular nerve block as an alternative to inter-scalene brachial plexus block for post-operative pain control. However, the methods for performing ANB are variable. We studied the relationship between surface anatomy and the location of the axillary nerve in the quadrilateral space to ensure a technically safe and simple ANB. Eighty-eight shoulders were included. All measurements were performed with the subjects seated and the shoulders in a neutral position. We located the posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) using a vascular Doppler system and named this point 'AN'. We used this point to locate the axillary nerve, since this nerve is generally present with the PCHA in the quadrilateral space. We then examined the relationship between surface anatomic landmarks and AN. The depth of the medial side of the humerus at the AN (AN depth), which is at the lateral border of the quadrilateral space, was measured using ultrasonography. AN was located on the line between the posterolateral corner of the acromion (Ac) and the axillary fold (Axf) (Ac-Axf) in 77% of shoulders. The ratio of the distance from Ac to AN (Ac-AN) to Ac-Axf in all shoulders was 0.6 [standard deviation (SD), 0.1]. AN depth was 4.0 (SD, 0.5) cm in men and 3.6 (SD, 0.4) cm in women. Knowledge of the relationship between surface anatomy and AN, as well as estimated AN depth may aid in locating the axillary nerve in the quadrilateral space.Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 03/2014; DOI:10.1111/aas.12294 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: El manejo analgésico de los pacientes con trauma bilateral de hombro o tercio proximal del brazo es difícil. La estrategia multimodal basada en administración de anestésicos locales en el plexo braquial parece ser la más efectiva, pero hacer bloqueos bilaterales tiene riesgos asociados, como son: la parálisis del nervio frénico, la toxicidad por anestésicos locales y el neumotórax bilateral. Estos pueden ser disminuidos con una aproximación supraclavicular al plexo braquial y el uso de ultrasonografía.Revista Colombiana de Anestesiologia 12/2012; 40(4):304-308.