Thermodynamic characterization of substrate and inhibitor binding to Trypanosoma brucei 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase.
ABSTRACT 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase is a potential target for new drugs against African trypanosomiasis. Phosphorylated aldonic acids are strong inhibitors of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and 4-phospho-d-erythronate (4PE) and 4-phospho-d-erythronohydroxamate are two of the strongest inhibitors of the Trypanosoma brucei enzyme. Binding of the substrate 6-phospho-d-gluconate (6PG), the inhibitors 5-phospho-d-ribonate (5PR) and 4PE, and the coenzymes NADP, NADPH and NADP analogue 3-amino-pyridine adenine dinucleotide phosphate to 6-phospho-d-gluconate dehydrogenase from T. brucei was studied using isothermal titration calorimetry. Binding of the substrate (K(d) = 5 microm) and its analogues (K(d) =1.3 microm and K(d) = 2.8 microm for 5PR and 4PE, respectively) is entropy driven, whereas binding of the coenzymes is enthalpy driven. Oxidized coenzyme and its analogue, but not reduced coenzyme, display a half-site reactivity in the ternary complex with the substrate or inhibitors. Binding of 6PG and 5PR poorly affects the dissociation constant of the coenzymes, whereas binding of 4PE decreases the dissociation constant of the coenzymes by two orders of magnitude. In a similar manner, the K(d) value of 4PE decreases by two orders of magnitude in the presence of the coenzymes. The results suggest that 5PR acts as a substrate analogue, whereas 4PE mimics the transition state of dehydrogenation. The stronger affinity of 4PE is interpreted on the basis of the mechanism of the enzyme, suggesting that the inhibitor forces the catalytic lysine 185 into the protonated state.
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ABSTRACT: Crystal structures of recombinant Lactococcus lactis 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (LlPDH) in complex with substrate, cofactor, product and inhibitors have been determined. LlPDH shares significant sequence identity with the enzymes from sheep liver and the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei for which structures have been reported. Comparisons indicate that the key residues in the active site are highly conserved, as are the interactions with the cofactor and the product ribulose 5-phosphate. However, there are differences in the conformation of the substrate 6-phosphogluconate which may reflect distinct states relevant to catalysis. Analysis of the complex formed with the potent inhibitor 4-phospho-d-erythronohydroxamic acid, suggests that this molecule does indeed mimic the high-energy intermediate state that it was designed to. The analysis also identified, as a contaminant by-product of the inhibitor synthesis, 4-phospho-d-erythronamide, which binds in similar fashion. LlPDH can now serve as a model system for structure-based inhibitor design targeting the enzyme from Trypanosoma species.FEBS Journal 02/2007; 274(1):275-86. · 4.25 Impact Factor
- Biochemistry 03/1964; 3:190-5. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Polyphenolic compounds are widely distributed in higher plants and are an integral part of the human diet. Recent interest in these substances has been stimulated by their potential health benefits, which are believed to arise mainly from their antioxidant activity. In the past years, the antioxidant activity of flavonoids has been studied in detail. An important but often overlooked group of polyphenols is that of the proanthocyanidins. Therefore, the present review is focused mainly on the antioxidant activity of proanthocyanidins and its relevancy in vivo. The three most important mechanisms of their antioxidant action will be discussed, i.e. free radical scavenging activity, chelation of transition metals, and inhibition of enzymes. In addition, the protective role of proanthocyanidins against lipid peroxidation and peroxynitrite, as well as their antimicrobial properties will be discussed. To study the in vivo relevancy of the proanthocyanidin activities, the knowledge of their pharmacokinetic parameters is crucial. Although bioavailability and metabolism data on polyphenols in general and proanthocyanidins in particular are still largely unavailable, the first reports indicate that at least monomers and smaller oligomeric procyanidins are absorbed. There is also considerable scientific and public interest in the important role that antioxidants may play in health care, e.g. by acting as cancer chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory agents and by reducing risk of cardiovascular mortality. Each of these aspects will be discussed, with special attention to the role of proanthocyanidins on apoptosis, gene expression and transcription factors, such as NF-kappa B.Current Medicinal Chemistry 06/2004; 11(10):1345-59. · 4.07 Impact Factor