Evaluation of total and ionized calcium status in dogs with blastomycosis: 38 cases (1997-2006).
ABSTRACT To determine blood ionized calcium (iCa) and serum total calcium (tCa) concentrations in dogs with blastomycosis and to evaluate whether serum tCa concentration, albumin-adjusted serum calcium concentration (AdjCa-Alb), and total protein-adjusted serum calcium concentration (AdjCa-TP) accurately predict iCa status.
Retrospective case series.
38 client-owned dogs with a cytologic diagnosis of blastomycosis.
Dogs were classified as hypocalcemic, normocalcemic, or hypercalcemic on the basis of blood iCa concentration, serum tCa concentration, AdjCa-Alb, and AdjCa-TP; classification on the basis of serum tCa concentration, AdjCa-Alb, and AdjCa-TP was compared with blood iCa concentration.
Except for 2 hypercalcemic dogs, all dogs had blood iCa concentrations within the reference interval. Use of serum tCa concentration overestimated hypocalcemia in 57.9% (22/38) of dogs and underestimated hypercalcemia in 1 dog. Use of AdjCa-Alb correctly reclassified all dogs as normocalcemic that were classified as hypocalcemic on the basis of serum tCa concentration, but failed to predict hypercalcemia in 1 dog. Use of AdjCa-TP correctly reclassified all but 2 dogs as normocalcemic that were classified as hypocalcemic on the basis of serum tCa concentration, and failed to predict hypercalcemia in 1 dog. No correlation was found between blood iCa concentration and serum concentrations of tCa, total protein, and albumin; AdjCa-Alb; or AdjCa-TP.
High blood iCa concentration was uncommon in dogs with blastomycosis. Hypoalbuminemia contributed to a low serum tCa concentration despite a blood iCa concentration within reference limits. The use of serum tCa concentration, AdjCa-Alb, and AdjCa-TP may fail to identify a small number of dogs with high blood iCa concentrations.
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ABSTRACT: To compare results of the most common diagnostic tests for pulmonary blastomycosis in dogs, identify factors associated with outcome, and determine response to various antifungal treatment protocols. Retrospective case series. 125 dogs with pulmonary blastomycosis. Medical records were reviewed, and information was obtained regarding diagnostic methods, results of routine laboratory testing, and radiographic response to antifungal treatment. 79 dogs survived, 38 died, and 8 were euthanized. Transthoracic fine-needle aspiration and transtracheal lavage were the most common diagnostic methods. Results of an agar gel immunodiffusion test for antibodies against Blastomyces dermatitidis were negative in 12 of 24 (50%) dogs. Only 3 of 94 (3.2%) dogs in which cytologic or histologic examination or bacterial culture of pulmonary samples were performed had any evidence of concurrent bacterial infection. The half-time for radiographic resolution of pulmonary infiltrates did not vary significantly with antifungal treatment, and use of a loading dosage of itraconazole was not associated with significant improvements in outcome or time to disease resolution. Dogs that died had a higher number of band neutrophils at initial examination, compared with those that survived. Results suggested that the agar gel immunodiffusion test should not be used as the sole diagnostic test for pulmonary blastomycosis in dogs, that concurrent bacterial pneumonia was uncommon in dogs with pulmonary blastomycosis, and that the rate with which pulmonary infiltrates resolved did not vary significantly among antifungal treatments.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 02/2008; 232(2):222-7. DOI:10.2460/javma.232.2.222 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A 4-year-old spayed female mixed breed dog was referred to the Michigan State University, Veterinary Teaching Hospital (MSU-VTH) with vomiting, lethargy and anorexia of 2 weeks duration. Abdominal radiographs and ultrasonography showed hepatosplenomegaly. Cytological evaluation of ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirates of the liver and spleen revealed fungal organisms and pyogranulomatous inflammation; fungal culture documented Paecilomyces variotii infection. The dog received antifungal therapy and supportive care. Multiple firm plaque-like skin lesions, predominantly involving the inguinal region, developed 18 days after initial presentation and were diagnosed histopathologically as calcinosis cutis. While generalized calcinosis cutis has been reported in three dogs with blastomycosis and one dog with leptospirosis, the association with disseminated Paecilomyces spp. infection is novel.Veterinary Dermatology 12/2008; 19(6):368-72. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3164.2008.00706.x · 1.99 Impact Factor
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