Evaluation of total and ionized calcium status in dogs with blastomycosis: 38 cases (1997-2006).
ABSTRACT To determine blood ionized calcium (iCa) and serum total calcium (tCa) concentrations in dogs with blastomycosis and to evaluate whether serum tCa concentration, albumin-adjusted serum calcium concentration (AdjCa-Alb), and total protein-adjusted serum calcium concentration (AdjCa-TP) accurately predict iCa status.
Retrospective case series.
38 client-owned dogs with a cytologic diagnosis of blastomycosis.
Dogs were classified as hypocalcemic, normocalcemic, or hypercalcemic on the basis of blood iCa concentration, serum tCa concentration, AdjCa-Alb, and AdjCa-TP; classification on the basis of serum tCa concentration, AdjCa-Alb, and AdjCa-TP was compared with blood iCa concentration.
Except for 2 hypercalcemic dogs, all dogs had blood iCa concentrations within the reference interval. Use of serum tCa concentration overestimated hypocalcemia in 57.9% (22/38) of dogs and underestimated hypercalcemia in 1 dog. Use of AdjCa-Alb correctly reclassified all dogs as normocalcemic that were classified as hypocalcemic on the basis of serum tCa concentration, but failed to predict hypercalcemia in 1 dog. Use of AdjCa-TP correctly reclassified all but 2 dogs as normocalcemic that were classified as hypocalcemic on the basis of serum tCa concentration, and failed to predict hypercalcemia in 1 dog. No correlation was found between blood iCa concentration and serum concentrations of tCa, total protein, and albumin; AdjCa-Alb; or AdjCa-TP.
High blood iCa concentration was uncommon in dogs with blastomycosis. Hypoalbuminemia contributed to a low serum tCa concentration despite a blood iCa concentration within reference limits. The use of serum tCa concentration, AdjCa-Alb, and AdjCa-TP may fail to identify a small number of dogs with high blood iCa concentrations.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 11/2010; 24(6):1509-14. DOI:10.1111/j.1939-1676.2010.0581.x · 2.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To review the inter-relationships between calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH), parent and activated vitamin D metabolites (vitamin D, 25(OH)-vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2 -vitamin D, 24,25(OH)2 -vitamin D), and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) during chronic kidney disease (CKD) in dogs and cats. Human and veterinary literature. Beneficial effects of calcitriol treatment during CKD have traditionally been attributed to regulation of PTH but new perspectives emphasize direct renoprotective actions independent of PTH and calcium. It is now apparent that calcitriol exerts an important effect on renal tubular reclamation of filtered 25(OH)-vitamin D, which may be important in maintaining adequate circulating 25(OH)-vitamin D. This in turn may be vital for important pleiotropic actions in peripheral tissues through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms that impact the health of those local tissues. Limited information is available reporting the benefit of calcitriol treatment in dogs and cats with CKD. A survival benefit has been shown for dogs with CKD treated with calcitriol compared to placebo. The concentrations of circulating 25(OH)-vitamin D have recently been shown to be low in people and dogs with CKD and are related to survival in people with CKD. Combination therapy for people with CKD using both parental and activated vitamin D compounds is common in human nephrology and there is a developing emphasis using combination treatment with activated vitamin D and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) inhibitors.03/2013; 23(2):134-62. DOI:10.1111/vec.12036
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ABSTRACT: A 9 yr old domestic shorthair cat was diagnosed with cutaneous and pulmonic blastomycosis. Severe persistent ionized hypercalcemia and excess circulating concentration of calcitriol were documented in association with blastomycosis. Ionized hypercalcemia resolved when the granulomatous lesions of blastomycosis resolved and the calcitriol levels decreased.Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 11/2011; 47(6):e116-20. DOI:10.5326/JAAHA-MS-5566 · 0.78 Impact Factor