Body mass index and environmental supports for physical activity among active and inactive residents of a U. S. southeastern county.
ABSTRACT This study examined the associations between body mass index (BMI) and environmental supports for physical activity in active and inactive adults based on national recommendations for physical activity and walking. Residents of a southeastern community (N = 1,111; ages 18-75 years) were contacted using a random-digit-dial method and were asked about neighborhood and community social and environmental supports for physical activity.
Physical activity was measured using the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) physical activity module.
There was a positive association between higher physical activity and walking levels and lower BMI levels. Trusting neighborhoods, having recreational facilities present, and using trails were each associated with twice the odds of being overweight versus obese among those not meeting the national physical activity recommendations. Using trails was also associated with 2.7 times the odds of being overweight as opposed to obese among participants who were not regular walkers.
Improving environmental supports for access and use of trails and recreational facilities may be important for future environmental interventions aimed at reducing obesity among inactive individuals.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based exercise program on the body composition and physical fitness of girls and their mothers. Methodology: In a semi-experimental study we included 70 subjects (35 high-school girl students as well as their mothers) in 2007. All the students, whose mothers volunteered to take part in the study, were in first to third grades of high school and randomly selected from five high schools in the city. The study was run at Neda high school in Sanandaj-Iran. Eligible subjects participated in an exercise program for 12 weeks, ninety minutes per session, two times per week. The subjects followed the same exercise programme, at the same time in the same place. Measurements included cardiovascular endurance, muscle strength, flexibility, height, weight, body-mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference. Results: Age mean (standard deviation) for girls and mothers was 15.00(1.60) and 40.00(3.80) respectively. In girls, the intervention had significant effect on weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference (p<0.05). Physical fitness tests including muscle strength, flexibility and cardiovascular endurance were significantly different between the pre-test and post-test measurements (p<0.05). In mothers body weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference declined significantly (p<0.05). Flexibility test was not significantly affected over time, despite an increase in muscle strength and cardiovascular endurance (p<0.05). The highest correlations were found between the mother's participation index and the girl's participation index (r: 0.48, p< 0.001). Conclusions: The exercise program was effective in improving physical fitness.Pak J Med Sci Sci July -September. 01/2010; 26(3):595-600.
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ABSTRACT: Understanding which physical environmental factors affect adult obesity, and how best to influence them, is important for public health and urban planning. Previous attempts to summarise the literature have not systematically assessed the methodological quality of included studies, or accounted for environmental differences between continents or the ways in which environmental characteristics were measured. We have conducted an updated review of the scientific literature on associations of physical environmental factors with adult weight status, stratified by continent and mode of measurement, accompanied by a detailed risk-of-bias assessment. Five databases were systematically searched for studies published between 1995 and 2013. Two factors, urban sprawl and land use mix, were found consistently associated with weight status, although only in North America. With the exception of urban sprawl and land use mix in the US the results of the current review confirm that the available research does not allow robust identification of ways in which that physical environment influences adult weight status, even after taking into account methodological quality.BMC Public Health 03/2014; 14(1):233. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Community-wide efforts to encourage healthy behaviours must respond to the needs of existing neighbourhoods, especially those where low physical activity (PA) is associated with social, economic, and cultural challenges. This study reports on the effect of direct and snowball sampling strategies and financial incentive levels on the response rates of a built environment and PA survey in a predominately urban, low-SES new-immigrant community. Women residing in the Jane-Finch neighbourhood of Toronto, Ontario were selected to participate by quasi-random sampling, yielding a response rate of 41.5%. The survey completion rate per contact attempt increased 2-fold when incentives were increased from $10 to $20 and a further threefold following the increase from $20 to $30. Snowball sampled respondents were older, less likely to have full-time employment, and had lower educational attainment than directly sampled participants. With appropriate incentives, face-to-face contact, and snowball sampling, survey-based research is feasible within a low-SES, high minority population.Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 09/2011; · 1.16 Impact Factor