Comparison of heavy metal toxicity in life stages (spermiotoxicity, egg toxicity, embryotoxicity and larval toxicity) of Hydroides elegans.
ABSTRACT A toxicity test was developed to examine the effects of heavy metal contaminants on the early life stages of the marine polychaete. We have studied the effects of metals on fertilization and early development of marine polychaete Hydroides elegans. These heavy metals have often been found in polluted ground and water near industrial discharges, and have therefore been detected from time to time in the food chain. They have been reported to alter various reproduction functions in various animals including marine populations. The toxic effect of mercury, cadmium, lead, nickel and zinc on sperm viability, fertilization, embryogenesis and larvae of H. elegans was examined. We observed that the rate of fertilization decreased when the sperm was incubated with heavy metals. Treatment of eggs with each metal did not prevent fertilization, but delayed or blocked the first mitotic divisions, and altered early embryonic development. All these effects were observed at relatively high concentrations. However, bio-accumulation in sediments and aquatic organisms have been reported. Polychaete eggs may then be in contact with very high concentrations of these heavy metals in areas where these metals are not handled or stocked properly, and then develop into abnormal embryos. In addition to bivalves and sea-urchins, polychaete embryos can provide biological criteria for seawater quality standards taking into account the sensitivity of the invertebrates and their contribution in detection of harmful chemicals with no marked effect on the species. Our results indicate that the early development of H. elegans is highly sensitive to heavy metals and this polychaete can be routinely employed as a test organism for ecotoxicity bioassays in tropical and subtropical regions.
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ABSTRACT: 2011): The sperm motility in marine teleosts as a tool to evaluate the toxic effects of xenobiotics, Chemistry and Ecology, 27:sup2, 47-56 The possibility of using the sperm of teleosts as a model system for ecotoxicological assessments has been explored by evaluating sperm motility parameters: (1) time to reach the maximum motility value (activation time), (2) maximum motility value, (3) duration of maximum motility value, and (4) total time of motility (until class 0). Sperm of Dicentrarchus labrax, Sparus aurata, Diplodus puntazzo and Pagellus erythrinus were analysed and compared. The effects of dimethylsulfoxide, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, glycerol and methanol on sperm motility in these marine species were investigated. Among the systems tested, sperms of S. aurata and D. labrax were the most sensitive to the tested xenobiotics and S. aurata spermatozoa were shown to be easier to manage for ecotoxicological assays.Chemistry and Ecology 01/2012; 27:47-56. · 1.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In order to get insights into the effects of cadmium (Cd) on cell morphology and functions, we exposed haemocytes of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri to sub-lethal concentrations of CdCl2. Results indicate that Cd hampers haemocyte spreading and phagocytosis in a dose-dependent way, through the alteration of the actin cytoskeleton. In addition, the metal decreases the stability of the internal membranes, as revealed by the Neutral Red assay. The fraction of cells showing positivity for the lysosomal enzyme acid phosphatase is also reduced in the presence of Cd, whereas the number of cells responsive to the Annexin-V assay and showing chromatin condensation increases, suggesting a metal-dependent induction of apoptosis in exposed cells. As Cd is a known cause of oxidative stress, the decrease in the percentage of cells positive to the assay for superoxide anion, observed at low Cd concentrations, is indicative of the synthesis of metal-chelating molecules, such as metallothioneins, whereas, the increase at high Cd concentrations suggests a depletion of the cell reducing redox potential.Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology 04/2013; · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the threat that anthropogenic substances pose to animals when they are emitted into the environment, tests like the invertebrate embryo toxicity test with the ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis have been developed. These tests are used to investigate substances like the heavy metal platinum (Pt) that is used in catalytic converters and is gradually released in car exhausts. In 2010, our group reported that high Pt concentrations cause body plan alterations in snails and prevent the formation of an external shell during M. cornuarietis embryogenesis. Now, this study presents scanning-electron micrographs and histological sections of platinum(2+) (Pt(2+))-treated and untreated M. cornuarietis embryos and compares "normally" developing and "shell-less" embryos during embryogenesis, to reveal the exact course of events that lead to this body plan shift. Both groups showed similar development until the onset of torsion 70- to 82-h postfertilization. In the Pt(2+)-exposed embryos, the rudimentary shell gland (=anlage of both shell gland and mantle, which usually evaginates, grows, and eventually covers the visceral sac) does not spread across the visceral sac but remains on its ventral side. Without the excessive growth of the shell gland, a horizontal rotation of the visceral sac relative to head and foot does not occur, as being normal during the process of torsion.Journal of Morphology 03/2012; 273(8):830-41. · 1.60 Impact Factor