Comparison of heavy metal toxicity in life stages (spermiotoxicity, egg toxicity, embryotoxicity and larval toxicity) of Hydroides elegans.
ABSTRACT A toxicity test was developed to examine the effects of heavy metal contaminants on the early life stages of the marine polychaete. We have studied the effects of metals on fertilization and early development of marine polychaete Hydroides elegans. These heavy metals have often been found in polluted ground and water near industrial discharges, and have therefore been detected from time to time in the food chain. They have been reported to alter various reproduction functions in various animals including marine populations. The toxic effect of mercury, cadmium, lead, nickel and zinc on sperm viability, fertilization, embryogenesis and larvae of H. elegans was examined. We observed that the rate of fertilization decreased when the sperm was incubated with heavy metals. Treatment of eggs with each metal did not prevent fertilization, but delayed or blocked the first mitotic divisions, and altered early embryonic development. All these effects were observed at relatively high concentrations. However, bio-accumulation in sediments and aquatic organisms have been reported. Polychaete eggs may then be in contact with very high concentrations of these heavy metals in areas where these metals are not handled or stocked properly, and then develop into abnormal embryos. In addition to bivalves and sea-urchins, polychaete embryos can provide biological criteria for seawater quality standards taking into account the sensitivity of the invertebrates and their contribution in detection of harmful chemicals with no marked effect on the species. Our results indicate that the early development of H. elegans is highly sensitive to heavy metals and this polychaete can be routinely employed as a test organism for ecotoxicity bioassays in tropical and subtropical regions.
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ABSTRACT: There is an urgent need to identify additional tropical marine species and develop sensitive sub-lethal and chronic toxicity test methods for routine ecotoxicology. The tropical symbiotic sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella is a suitable species for use in ecotoxicology and here we have assessed the effects of trace metal exposures on the development of asexually produced A. pulchella pedal lacerates to a juvenile stage. Concentrations of 55µg/L for cadmium, 262µg/L for cobalt, 5µg/L for copper, and 269µg/L for zinc were estimated to inhibit normal development by 50 percent after 8-d exposures, and are among the most sensitive available toxicity estimates for marine organisms. This work illustrates the potential value of this species and sub-lethal toxicological endpoint for routine ecotoxicology in tropical marine environments.Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 11/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Food utilization and growth of the 5th and 6th instar Spodoptera litura Fabricius larvae, and its effect on reproduction potential was evaluated by feeding larvae diets with different doses of Ni for 3 generations. Dose-dependent relationships between Ni levels and food consumption and growth were variable with different larval developmental period and Ni exposure duration. RCR, AD and RGR of the 6th instar larvae were much more affected by Ni exposure than those of 5th instar larvae, and the effects were strongest in the 3rd generation. It was found that RCR was significantly stimulated after 1 and 20mgkg(-1) Ni exposure, while AD was significantly inhibited after 1, 5, 10 and 40mgkg(-1) Ni exposure. However, lower levels of Ni (⩽5mgkg(-1)) significantly increased and higher levels of Ni (⩾10mgkg(-1)) significantly decreased RGR. In 3 successive generations, 10mgkg(-1) Ni significantly increased the ECI and ECD of the 5th instar larvae, and 5mgkg(-1) Ni significantly increased the ECD of the 6th instar larvae. However, ECD were all significantly inhibited with 20mgkg(-1) Ni exposure. Results also revealed that durations of larvae were shortened at low levels of Ni, but extended at high levels of Ni. Fecundity was inhibited by the highest Ni doses in each generation, while improved by low Ni doses in the 3rd generation. Hatching rates in all treatments were significantly decreased in a Ni dose-dependent manner. Study indicated that effects of Ni on these parameters were predominant with the increasing Ni exposure period.Chemosphere 10/2013; · 3.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Irgarol and diuron are the most representative "organic booster biocides" that replace organotin compounds in antifouling paints, and metolachlor is one of the most extensively used chloroacetamide herbicides in agriculture. The toxicity of S-metolachlor, irgarol and diuron was evaluated in Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) gametes or embryos exposed to concentrations of pesticides ranging from 0.1× to 1000×, with 1× corresponding to environmental concentrations of the three studied pesticides in Arcachon Bay (France). Exposures were performed on (1) spermatozoa alone (2) oocytes alone and (3) both spermatozoa and oocytes, and adverse effects on fertilization success and offspring development were recorded. The results showed that the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa was significantly affected after gamete exposure to pesticide concentrations as low as 1× of irgarol and diuron and 10× of metolachlor. The offspring obtained from pesticide-exposed spermatozoa displayed a dose-dependent increase in developmental abnormalities. In contrast, treating oocytes with pesticide concentrations up to 10× did not alter fertilization rate and offspring quality. However, a significant decline in fertilization success and increase in abnormal D-larvae prevalence were observed at higher concentrations 10× (0.1 μg L(-1)) for S-metolachlor and 100× for irgarol (1.0 μg L(-1)) and diuron (4.0 μg L(-1)). Irgarol, diuron and S-metolachlor also induced a dose-dependent increase in abnormal D-larvae prevalence when freshly fertilized embryos were treated with pesticide concentrations as low as concentration of 1× (0.01 μg L(-1) for irgarol or S-metolachlor, and 0.04 μg L(-1) for diuron). The two bioassays on C. gigas spermatozoa and embryos displayed similar sensitivities to the studied pesticides while oocytes were less sensitive. Diuron, irgarol and S-metolachlor induced spermiotoxicity and embryotoxicity at environmentally relevant concentrations and therefore might be a threat to oyster recruitment in coastal areas facing chronic inputs of pesticides.Marine environmental research 05/2013; · 2.34 Impact Factor