Combined heart-kidney transplantation: the University of Wisconsin experience.
ABSTRACT Combined heart-kidney transplantation (HKTx) is increasing in frequency, but long-term outcomes are unknown and appropriately comparative analysis is lacking.
This study was a retrospective review of prospectively collected data for 19 HKTx patients. Patient and graft survival, graft rejection and coronary allograft vasculopathy (CAV) were compared for HKTx vs recipients of a heart (n = 515) or kidney alone (n = 3,188) or both organs at separate time-points (n = 8).
Patient and graft survival did not differ for HKTx vs any group. HKTx time to first rejection episode was significantly prolonged for both organs vs single-organ recipients. The incidence of CAV was significantly lower for HKTx.
HKTx provides outcomes similar to those for solitary heart or kidney transplantation. There may be an immunologic advantage to receiving organs in a combined fashion. Such allocation of organs seems medically appropriate; however, more refined strategies are needed to identify optimal recipient populations.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Renal insufficiency and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are important problems in the cardiac transplant population, and are associated with significant morbidity, mortality and financial cost. We undertook this study to define pre-operative or early post-operative predictors of subsequent renal insufficiency and ESRD. We studied 370 patients at Brigham and Women's Hospital who received heart transplants between 1984 and 1999, with up to 10-year follow-up. We evaluated 2 time-dependent primary outcomes: early reduction in GFR, and development of ESRD at any timepoint. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used in both univariate and multivariate analyses. The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) fell 24% within the first post-transplant year, and remained stable thereafter. By actuarial analysis, 23% of patients developed a 50% reduction in GFR by the third year, and 20% developed ESRD by the tenth year of follow-up. In Cox multivariate analysis, significant predictors of post-transplant ESRD included: GFR <50 ml/min (hazards ratio [HR] 3.69, p = 0.024); high mean cyclosporine trough in the first 6 months (HR 5.10, p = 0.0059); and presence of diabetes (HR 3.53, p = 0.021). Conclusions about renal insufficiency outcome were limited by difficulties with accurate estimation of GFR and with definition of renal insufficiency. The results of this study underscore the magnitude of the problem of renal insufficiency and ESRD in the heart transplant population. In addition, these data suggest that patients at high risk for these outcomes can be identified early, even pre-operatively, to guide post-operative management.The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 03/2004; 23(3):289-300. · 5.11 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In end-stage cardiomyopathy where concomitant chronic renal failure is a contraindication for cardiac transplantation (HTx), simultaneous heart and kidney transplantation (HKTx) may be the only feasible therapeutic option. Due to the increased donor shortage, the clinical outcome of combined HKTx patients on tacrolimus-based immunosuppression was assessed and compared with a group of HTx patients. Three hundred forty-nine HTxs, including 13 (4%) combined HKTxs, were performed since 1995. Two hundred twenty-one HTx and all HKTx recipients received tacrolimus-based immunosuppression. Acute rejection episodes (AREs), infections, renal function and clinical outcome were evaluated. Pre-operative renal diagnoses for HKTx patients included cystic nephropathy (n = 4), glomerulonephritis (n = 4), cytostatica-induced nephropathy (n = 1), chronic rejection after renal transplant (n = 1), reflux nephropathy (n = 2) and chronic calcineurin-inhibitor -induced nephropathy after HTx (n = 1). Twelve patients (92%) were on hemodialysis pre-operatively, 1 underwent implantation of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) before HKTx. After 4.7 +/- 2 years, 92% of HKTx compared with 85% of HTx patients had survived (p = 0.42). Acute cardiac rejection episodes were more frequent in HTx than in HKTx patients (0.04 +/- 0.09 vs 0.02 +/- 0.04 ARE/100 patient-days; p = 0.07). Incidence of infection was comparable (0.3 +/- 0.2 vs 0.5 +/- 0.4 infection/100 patient-days). Freedom from transplant vasculopathy was 100% in the HKTx group compared with 71% in the HTx group after 4 years (p = 0.04). Tacrolimus-based immunosuppression yields promising long-term results in HKTx and HTx. The incidence of transplant vasculopathy seems to be lower after HKTx than after HTx. If these results are secondary to a protective effect of tacrolimus-induced tolerance or of tolerance-associated co-transplantation they will need to be investigated in prospective multicenter trials.The Journal of heart and lung transplantation: the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation 12/2005; 24(11):1787-92. · 3.54 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Heart-lung transplantation (Tx) is known to offer a protective effect against acute cardiac rejection. This study was undertaken to evaluate acute and chronic heart and/or lung rejection in the setting of multiple-transplanted organs from the same donor compared with single-organ transplantation. Acute (treated rejection episodes of heart or lungs) and chronic (allograft vasculopathy in hearts and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome [BOS] in lungs) rejection events were analyzed in 348 heart transplant (H) recipients, 24 heart-lung (HL) recipients, 82 double-lung (L) recipients and 8 heart-kidney (HK) recipients >18 years of age, who were transplanted between 1990 and 2002. Survival at 3 years differed among groups as follows: HK, 100%; H, 82%; HL, 74%; and L, 70%. The probability of acute rejection within the first 3 months was higher in H recipients than in HL (81% vs 22%; p < 0.0001) or HK (81% vs 12%; p = 0.00009) recipients. Acute cardiac rejection occurred more frequently during the first 2 years in isolated H recipients compared with HL (2.8 vs 0.27 episodes; p < 0.0001) and HK (2.8 vs 0.54; p < 0.001) recipients. Acute lung rejection occurred more frequently in the first 2 years in L than HL (2.4 vs 1.0 episodes; p = 0.02) recipients. Chronic cardiac rejection (allograft vasculopathy) was more likely within 3 years after H compared with HL (32% vs 16%; p = 0.04) or HK (32% vs 0%; p = 0.14). The onset of chronic lung rejection (BOS) within 3 years was similar in HL and L recipients (39% vs 40%; p = 0.9). Recipients of multiple organs from a single donor undergo less acute rejection of the heart or lungs compared with isolated heart or lung transplant recipients. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy is decreased significantly when cardiac transplantation is combined with a lung allograft. A lower incidence of cardiac allograft vasculopathy is observed when cardiac transplantation is combined with a renal allograft, and may prove statistically significant when more cases have been accumulated. These phenomena may result from immune modulation of the recipient by simultaneous transplant of disparate tissues or introduction of immune-modulating hematopoietic elements.The Journal of heart and lung transplantation: the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation 11/2005; 24(11):1828-33. · 3.54 Impact Factor