An unusual case of galactorrhea in a postmenopausal woman complicating breast reduction.
ABSTRACT Galactorrhea is a relatively common condition, but has rarely been seen following breast reduction surgery. To date there are only seven cases reported in the literature, all in premenopausal women. Postsurgical galactorrhea is a diagnosis of exclusion and differential diagnosis is extensive. Common causes should be excluded first. We present the case of a 56-year-old postmenopausal woman who underwent bilateral breast reduction and developed galactorrhea 2 months postoperatively. MRI scan of the skull as well as Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH), prolactin levels were normal. She was on long-term hormonal replacement therapy. Because of suspected nerve-related pain in her right breast she was commenced on amitriptyline. We hypothesise that galactorrhea may have been caused by underlying neuroma or irritation of the anterior branch of the T4 intercostal nerve or hormonal replacement therapy or a combination of both.
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ABSTRACT: Driven by a persistent and unchangeable need to undo the discrepancy between reality of the body and gender of the mind, most male-to-female transsexuals seek physical feminization through hormonal and surgical treatment. The authors report some rare presenting conditions and exceptional results of augmentation mammaplasty in 11 male-to-female transsexuals treated between January 1979 and January 1998, as well as describe how to treat these conditions. In patients in whom gynecomastia was treated previously, the remaining subcutaneous fatty tissue may be insufficient to cover the implants safely, and subpectoral implantation should be considered. Augmentation after unilateral correction of gynecomastia requires different sizes of implants. Although exceptional in male-to-female transsexuals, mastopexy is the treatment of choice to correct any mammary ptosis, but the patient may request augmentation mammaplasty to fill out the breasts. Previous stacking mammaplasty may have been performed subglandularly, subpectorally, or both. Stacking may not have been noticed prior to corrective surgery. Extrusion of the implant may be associated with avascular necrosis or infection, but also with the use of high concentrations of steroid placed within the lumen of fluid-filled implants. The correction involves removal of the implant, with skin graft or flap reconstruction of the affected area. Replacement of the implant may have to be delayed. Symmastia results from overzealous medial dissection coupled with overaugmentation. Combined restoration of the presternal subcutaneous integrity, and medial closure of the pocket by subcutaneous approach only, leads to satisfactory reconstruction of the presternal median cleavage. Galactorrhea may be the result of hyperprolactemia but is more often caused by stimulation of the intercostal nerve by the implants.Annals of Plastic Surgery 12/1999; 43(5):476-83. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pregnancy-like (pseudolactational) hyperplasia (PLH) has long been recognized as an incidental finding in breast biopsies performed for various clinically detected benign and malignant conditions. The histologic features of PLH have been well described, including some instances exhibiting cytologic and structural atypia. The presence of calcifications in these lesions was rarely mentioned and was considered to be of little consequence. More recently, however, calcifications in PLH have become the target of needle localization and needle core biopsies. The authors report 12 instances in which PLH was the primary diagnosis in biopsy specimens obtained for radiographic abnormalities, usually calcifications. Six of 12 procedures (50.0%) were performed for mammographically detected calcifications, four cases for a mass, one for an "abnormal mammogram," and one for galactorrhea. Calcifications were present in PLH in 10 biopsies, in benign terminal ducts in one specimen, and were not identified histologically in the remaining specimen. In most instances, calcifications associated with PLH had smooth round or lobulated contours and distinctive, internal, unevenly spaced laminations. Cystic hypersecretory hyperplasia (CHH) was present in five specimens. In four of the five specimens, CHH merged with PLH (PLH/CHH). Four of 12 specimens (33.3%) showed atypia within foci of PLH/CHH. PLH should be recognized as a primary diagnosis in breast biopsies for mammographically detected abnormalities such as calcifications. Some calcifications associated with PLH have a distinctive histologic appearance, and their recognition can aid in the diagnosis of PLH. Additional cases of PLH/CHH must be studied to ascertain the clinical significance, if any, of this previously undescribed entity. The precancerous significance of PLH/CHH and of PLH with atypia has not been determined. In most instances, surgical excision would be prudent if PLH/ CHH or PLH with atypia is present in a needle core biopsy specimen.American Journal of Surgical Pathology 01/2001; 24(12):1670-4. · 4.87 Impact Factor
- Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 07/1975; 18(2):95-111. · 1.84 Impact Factor