Minimal role for STAT1 in interleukin-6 signaling and actions in the murine brain.
ABSTRACT Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine whose production by astrocytes in the CNS of transgenic mice (termed GF-IL6) causes neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. The binding of IL-6 to its receptor (IL6R) triggers gp130-mediated activation of STAT1 and STAT3 as well as SHP2 phosphatase and ERK1/2. We determined the relative contribution of STAT1 to IL-6 signaling and actions in vivo in the brain of GF-IL6 mice. GF-IL6 mice that were null for STAT1 (termed GF-IL6STAT1 KO) were viable, bred normally and physically indistinguishable from GF-IL6 controls. The level of phosphotyrosine (p-Y) STAT1 was increased significantly in GF-IL6 mice but not detectable in GF-IL6STAT1 KO animals. Phospho-STAT3 and phospho-ERK1/2 were increased markedly in GF-IL6 mice and were not altered by the absence of STAT1. Both the density and distribution of phospho-STAT3-positive cells (mainly astrocytes, microglia and endothelial cells) was similar in GF-IL6 and GF-IL6STAT1 KO mice. Despite a minor decrease in IL-1 and TNF mRNA, the overall inflammatory phenotype of GF-IL6 mice was not altered significantly by the absence of STAT1. IFN-regulated genes activated by STAT1 homodimers via the GAS element (e.g. CXCL9) showed a small increase in GF-IL6 but not GF-IL6STAT1 KO animals. When compared with transgenic mice with astrocyte-targeted production of the type I IFN, IFN-alpha, the increased levels of p-Y-STAT1 and IFN-regulated gene expression were considerably lower in GF-IL6 mice. In conclusion, although IL-6 can activate STAT1 this plays minimal, if any, role in IL-6 signaling and actions in the CNS.
- SourceAvailable from: Iain L Campbell[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chemokines are pivotal in the trafficking of leukocytes. In the present study, we examined the expression of multiple chemokine genes during the course of lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) in mice. In noninfected mice, no detectable chemokine gene expression was found in the brain; however, by day 3 postinfection, the induction of a number of chemokine mRNAs was observed as follows (in order from the greatest to the least): cytokine responsive gene-2 or interferon-inducible 10-kDa protein (Crg-2/IP-10), RANTES, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1beta), and MCP-3. At day 6 postinfection, the expression of these chemokine mRNAs was increased, and low expression of lymphotactin, C10, MIP-2, and MIP-1alpha mRNAs was detectable. Transcript for T-cell activation-3 was not detectable in the brain at any time following LCM virus (LCMV) infection. With some exceptions, a pattern of chemokine gene expression similar to that in the brain was observed in the peripheral organs of LCMV-infected mice. Mice that lacked expression of gamma interferon developed LCM and had a qualitatively similar but quantitatively reduced cerebral chemokine gene expression profile. In contrast, little or no chemokine gene expression was detectable in the brains of LCMV-infected athymic mice which did not develop LCM. Expression of Crg-2/IP-10 RNA was localized to predominantly resident cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and overlapped with sites of viral infection and immune cell infiltration. These findings demonstrate the expression of a number of chemokine genes in the brains of mice infected with LCMV. The pattern of chemokine gene expression in LCM may profoundly influence the characteristic phenotype and response of leukocytes in the brain and contribute to the immunopathogenesis of this fatal CNS infection.Journal of Virology 11/1997; 71(10):7832-40. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: JAK/STAT is one of the pathways bearing signals from the cell membrane to the nucleus in response to extracellular growth factors and cytokines. In the present study, we examined the cellular distribution of Jak1 and Stat3, and activation of the JAK/STAT pathway following transient focal cerebral ischemia in the rat. Jak1 was mainly seen in white matter astrocytes and in certain neurons. Notably, large pyramidal neurons of cortical layer V showed the highest neuronal Jak1 expression within cerebral cortex and, in addition, expressed Stat3 indicating that the JAK/STAT pathway is involved in signaling in the corticofugal projection system. Shortly following ischemia, Jak1 immunoreactive astrocytes located in the ipsilateral neighbouring white matter and ischemic cortex and striatum showed nuclear translocation of Stat3. These features were maintained in large reactive astrocytes that surrounded the infarct from 3 to 7 days. At these later times, the abundant reactive microglia/macrophages were strongly immunoreactive to Stat3 and, to a lesser extent, Jak1. Two main protein complexes showing DNA binding activity at the sis-inducible element site were found under basal conditions, followed by changes in this pattern following ischemia concomitant with neuronal cell loss and activation of glia. This study showed basal cerebral activity of JAK/STAT signaling pathway, involving Jak1 and Stat3 proteins, and selective activation following ischemia. It is suggested that the kinase activity of Jak1 mediates nuclear translocation of Stat3 in astrocytes, and that this signaling pathway is involved in the astroglial response to focal cerebral ischemia.Glia 06/2000; 30(3):253-70. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In vivo levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6, present in the interstitial spaces of brain, have been repeatedly monitored up to 7 days after insertion of a microdialysis probe, designed to induce mechanical trauma to the brain. IL-1 is barely detectable immediately after implantation but over a 24-48 h period a 15-fold increase is seen. In contrast IL-6 levels at day 0 are high, increasing slightly (10%) by day 1 but decreasing to 40% by day 2. The temporal pattern of IL-6 recovery in the cerebrospinal fluid was similar to that in the dialysate but the levels were significantly lower and may reflect diffusion from the site of the probe lesion. Cellular sources of these cytokines include macrophages and neutrophils, which have infiltrated the lesion and microglia resident in the brain, which can be identified at the lesion site within 24 h of probe implantation. The astrocytic response to injury, evidenced by increased glial fibrillary acidic protein staining occurs much later, by day 7, and is unlikely to be responsible for IL-1 and IL-6 production found at 24-48 h. Since upon isolation and stimulation of microglia in vitro with lipopolysaccharide IL-1 and IL-6 can be measured in the supernatant, it would appear that they have the capacity to produce cytokines in vivo. Localised synthesis of cytokines at sites of brain injury by microglia would further stimulate microglia in an autocrine manner and also propagate the astrocytic reaction.Journal of Neuroimmunology 10/1991; 33(3):227-36. · 3.03 Impact Factor