Minimal role for STAT1 in interleukin-6 signaling and actions in the murine brain.
ABSTRACT Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine whose production by astrocytes in the CNS of transgenic mice (termed GF-IL6) causes neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. The binding of IL-6 to its receptor (IL6R) triggers gp130-mediated activation of STAT1 and STAT3 as well as SHP2 phosphatase and ERK1/2. We determined the relative contribution of STAT1 to IL-6 signaling and actions in vivo in the brain of GF-IL6 mice. GF-IL6 mice that were null for STAT1 (termed GF-IL6STAT1 KO) were viable, bred normally and physically indistinguishable from GF-IL6 controls. The level of phosphotyrosine (p-Y) STAT1 was increased significantly in GF-IL6 mice but not detectable in GF-IL6STAT1 KO animals. Phospho-STAT3 and phospho-ERK1/2 were increased markedly in GF-IL6 mice and were not altered by the absence of STAT1. Both the density and distribution of phospho-STAT3-positive cells (mainly astrocytes, microglia and endothelial cells) was similar in GF-IL6 and GF-IL6STAT1 KO mice. Despite a minor decrease in IL-1 and TNF mRNA, the overall inflammatory phenotype of GF-IL6 mice was not altered significantly by the absence of STAT1. IFN-regulated genes activated by STAT1 homodimers via the GAS element (e.g. CXCL9) showed a small increase in GF-IL6 but not GF-IL6STAT1 KO animals. When compared with transgenic mice with astrocyte-targeted production of the type I IFN, IFN-alpha, the increased levels of p-Y-STAT1 and IFN-regulated gene expression were considerably lower in GF-IL6 mice. In conclusion, although IL-6 can activate STAT1 this plays minimal, if any, role in IL-6 signaling and actions in the CNS.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The JAK-STAT signaling pathway has been implicated in astrocyte differentiation. Both STAT1 and STAT3 are expressed in the central nervous system and are thought to be important for glial differentiation, as mainly demonstrated in vitro; however direct in vivo evidence is missing. We investigated whether STAT1 and STAT3 are essential for astrocyte development by testing the STAT responsiveness of astrocyte progenitors. STAT3 was absent in the ventricular zone where glial progenitors are born but begins to appear at the marginal zone at E16.5. At E18.5, both phospho-STAT1 and phospho-STAT3 were present in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-expressing white matter astrocytes. Overexpression of STAT3 by electroporation of chicks in ovo induced increased numbers of astrocyte progenitors in the spinal cord. Likewise, elimination of STAT3 in Stat3 conditional knockout (cKO) mice resulted in depletion of white matter astrocytes. Interestingly, elimination of STAT1 in Stat1 null mice did not inhibit astrocyte differentiation and deletion of Stat1 failed to aggravate the glial defects in Stat3 cKO mice. Measuring the activity of STAT binding elements and the gfap promoter in the presence of various STAT mutants revealed that transactivation depended on the activity of STAT3 not STAT1. No synergistic interaction between STAT1 and STAT3 was observed. Cortical progenitors of Stat1 null; Stat3 cKO mice generated astrocytes when STAT3 or the splice variant Stat3β was supplied, but not when STAT1 was introduced. Together, our results suggest that STAT3 is necessary and sufficient for astrocyte differentiation whereas STAT1 is dispensable.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86851. · 3.73 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional level and are key modulators of immune system, whose dysfunction contributes to the progression of neuroinflammatory diseaseas such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the most widespread motor neuron disorder. ALS is a non-cell-autonomous disease targeting motor neurons and neighboring glia, with microgliosis directly contributing to neurodegeneration. As limited information exists on miRNAs dysregulations in ALS, we examined this topic in primary microglia from superoxide dismutase 1-G93A mouse model. We compared miRNAs transcriptional profiling of non-transgenic and ALS microglia in resting conditions and after inflammatory activation by P2X7 receptor agonist. We identified upregulation of selected immune-enriched miRNAs, recognizing miR-22, miR-155, miR-125b and miR-146b among the most highly modulated. We proved that miR-365 and miR-125b interfere, respectively, with the interleukin-6 and STAT3 pathway determining increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) transcription. As TNFα directly upregulated miR-125b, and inhibitors of miR-365/miR-125b reduced TNFα transcription, we recognized the induction of miR-365 and miR-125b as a vicious gateway culminating in abnormal TNFα release. These results strengthen the impact of miRNAs in modulating inflammatory genes linked to ALS and identify specific miRNAs as pathogenetic mechanisms in the disease.Cell Death & Disease 01/2013; 4:e959. · 6.04 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Upon viral infection, pattern recognition receptors sense viral nucleic acids, leading to the production of type I interferons (IFNs), which initiate antiviral activities. Type I IFNs binds to their cognate receptor, IFNAR, resulting in the activation of signal-transducing activators of transcription 1 (STAT1). Thus, it has long been thought dsRNA-induced STAT1 phosphorylation is mediated by the transactivation of type I IFN signaling. Foreign RNA, such as viral RNA, in cells is sensed by the cytoplasmic sensors retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene-5 (MDA-5). In this study, we explored the molecular mechanism responsible for STAT1 phosphorylation in response to the sensing of dsRNA by cytosolic RNA sensors. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C), a synthetic dsRNA that is sensed by both RIG-I and MDA-5, induces STAT1 phosphorylation. We found the polyI:C-induced initial phosphorylation of STAT1 is dependent on the RIG-I pathway and that MDA-5 is not involved in STAT1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, pretreatment of the cells with neutralizing antibody targeting the IFN receptor suppressed the initial STAT1 phosphorylation in response to polyI:C, suggesting that this initial phosphorylation event is predominantly type I IFN dependent. In contrast, neither the known RIG-I pathway nor type I IFN is involved in the late phosphorylation of STAT1. In addition, polyI:C stimulated STAT1 phosphorylation in type I IFN receptor-deficient U5A cells with delayed kinetics. Collectively, our study provides evidence of a comprehensive regulatory mechanism in which dsRNA induces STAT1 phosphorylation, indicating the importance of STAT1 in maintaining very tight regulation of the innate immune system.Journal of Virology 09/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor