Protective effect of Curcumin, the active principle of turmeric (Curcuma longa) in haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia and associated behavioural, biochemical and neurochemical changes in rat brain.
ABSTRACT Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a motor disorder of the orofacial region resulting from chronic neuroleptic treatment. A high incidence and irreversibility of this hyperkinetic disorder has been considered a major clinical issue in the treatment of schizophrenia. The molecular mechanism related to the pathophysiology of tardive dyskinesia is not completely known. Various animal studies have demonstrated an enhanced oxidative stress and increased glutamatergic transmission as well as inhibition in the glutamate uptake after the chronic administration of haloperidol. The present study investigated the effect of curcumin, an antioxidant, in haloperidol-induced tardive dyskinesia by using different behavioural (orofacial dyskinetic movements, stereotypy, locomotor activity, % retention), biochemical (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione levels, antioxidant enzyme levels (SOD and catalase) and neurochemical (neurotransmitter levels) parameters. Chronic administration of haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p. for 21 days) significantly increased vacuous chewing movements (VCM's), tongue protrusions, facial jerking in rats which was dose-dependently inhibited by curcumin. Chronic administration of haloperidol also resulted in increased dopamine receptor sensitivity as evident by increased locomotor activity and stereotypy and also decreased % retention time on elevated plus maze paradigm. Pretreatment with curcumin reversed these behavioral changes. Besides, haloperidol also induced oxidative damage in all major regions of brain which was attenuated by curcumin, especially in the subcortical region containing striatum. On chronic administration of haloperidol, there was a decrease in turnover of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine in both cortical and subcortical regions which was again dose-dependently reversed by treatment with curcumin. The findings of the present study suggested for the involvement of free radicals in the development of neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia and point to curcumin as a possible therapeutic option to treat this hyperkinetic movement disorder.
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ABSTRACT: The ability of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), to modulate the attenuating effects of neurosteroids on the aging- and NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine-induced learning impairment, was tested in mice using two different behavioral models of long-term memory. The performance of aged mice (16 months old) in step-down type of passive-avoidance and elevated plus-maze paradigms was significantly impaired compared to that of young mice (3 months old). Neurosteroids pregnenolone sulfate (PS) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), at 1-20 mg/kg, s.c., significantly improved the passive-avoidance and plus-maze performances in aged mice. Neurosteroids PS and DHEAS, at doses 1-20 mg/kg, s.c., significantly attenuated dizocilpine (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced amnesia, without producing any promnestic effects alone in adult mice. In both cognitive tasks, the effects exhibited by the neurosteroids tested had a bell-shaped curve. Preadministration of L-NAME (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.), at doses that did not disrupt cognition alone in either young or aged mice, significantly blocked the beneficial and antiamnesic effects of neurosteroids PS (5 mg/kg) and DHEAS (10 mg/kg). A selective action of L-NAME on the effects of neurosteroids was indicated, since the effects of L-NAME were completely reversed by L-arginine (300 mg/kg, i.p.), a competitive substrate for NO synthase. Neither L-NAME nor L-arginine alone affected the antinociception, locomotor activity or rota-rod performance of young or aged mice. These observations suggest that a NO-dependent mechanism may be involved in the beneficial and antiamnesic effects of neurosteroids PS and DHEAS on the aging- and dizocilpine-induced impairment of learning and memory processes.Brain Research 08/1998; 799(2):215-29. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effects of a previous and concomitant treatment with vitamin E (VE) were studied on an animal model of tardive dyskinesia, i.e., the frequency of spontaneous tongue protrusions in rats treated with reserpine (RE). VE (5, 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg administered intraperitoneally, daily, for 19 days) attenuated the increase in tongue protrusion frequency induced by RE (1 mg/kg administered subcutaneously, on Days 16 and 18, 1 h after VE), which was quantified on Day 19. In a second experiment, a similar treatment with 20 mg/kg VE attenuated RE-induced increase in the striatal ratio of oxidized/reduced glutathione (GSSG/GSH), an index of the oxidative stress process. These results support the free radical hypothesis of tardive dyskinesia.Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 03/2003; 27(1):109-14. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia is an alleged animal model of tardive dyskinesia whose pathophysiology has been related to striatal oxidative stress. In the present investigation, the authors examined whether ebselen, an antioxidant organochalcogen with glutathione peroxidase-like activity, changes the behavioral and neurochemical effect of acute reserpine administration. Reserpine injection for 3 days every other day caused a significant increase on the tongue protrusion frequency and ebselen (30 mg/kg ip for 4 days, starting 1 day before reserpine) reversed partially the effect of reserpine (P<.05). Reserpine- and reserpine+ebselen-treated groups displayed an increase in vacuous chewing frequency when compared to control and ebselen-treated groups (P<.05) Reserpine increased the duration of facial twitching and ebselen reversed partially the effect of reserpine (P<.01). Reserpine increased significantly the thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) levels, and ebselen reversed the effect of reserpine on TBARS production in rat striatum. The results of the present study clearly indicated that ebselen has a protective role against reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia and reversed the increase in TBARS production caused by reserpine administration. Consequently, the use of ebselen as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia should be considered.Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 02/2003; 27(1):135-40. · 3.55 Impact Factor