Protective effect of Curcumin, the active principle of turmeric (Curcuma longa) in haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia and associated behavioural, biochemical and neurochemical changes in rat brain.
ABSTRACT Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a motor disorder of the orofacial region resulting from chronic neuroleptic treatment. A high incidence and irreversibility of this hyperkinetic disorder has been considered a major clinical issue in the treatment of schizophrenia. The molecular mechanism related to the pathophysiology of tardive dyskinesia is not completely known. Various animal studies have demonstrated an enhanced oxidative stress and increased glutamatergic transmission as well as inhibition in the glutamate uptake after the chronic administration of haloperidol. The present study investigated the effect of curcumin, an antioxidant, in haloperidol-induced tardive dyskinesia by using different behavioural (orofacial dyskinetic movements, stereotypy, locomotor activity, % retention), biochemical (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione levels, antioxidant enzyme levels (SOD and catalase) and neurochemical (neurotransmitter levels) parameters. Chronic administration of haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p. for 21 days) significantly increased vacuous chewing movements (VCM's), tongue protrusions, facial jerking in rats which was dose-dependently inhibited by curcumin. Chronic administration of haloperidol also resulted in increased dopamine receptor sensitivity as evident by increased locomotor activity and stereotypy and also decreased % retention time on elevated plus maze paradigm. Pretreatment with curcumin reversed these behavioral changes. Besides, haloperidol also induced oxidative damage in all major regions of brain which was attenuated by curcumin, especially in the subcortical region containing striatum. On chronic administration of haloperidol, there was a decrease in turnover of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine in both cortical and subcortical regions which was again dose-dependently reversed by treatment with curcumin. The findings of the present study suggested for the involvement of free radicals in the development of neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia and point to curcumin as a possible therapeutic option to treat this hyperkinetic movement disorder.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the the possible neurotoxic effects of sulfite and the protective potential of curcumin on the deep cerebellar nuclei using stereological methods.Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine 09/2014; 7S1:S301-5. · 0.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite decades of research, tardive dyskinesia (TD) remains a poorly understood iatrogenic movement disorder with few effective treatments and no known cure. Accordingly, the development of an innocuous strategy to prevent or mitigate antipsychotic (AP)-associated TD would represent an important clinical advance. Supporting evidence for antioxidant (AX)-based treatment regimens can be found in the preclinical literature, where AP-induced vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) in rats are attenuated by the concurrent administration of direct and indirect AXs. Our aim was to review the preclinical literature examining the role of AX-promoting treatments in the prevention of AP-induced VCMs in rats. A literature search using Google Scholar and PubMed was performed. Relevant results were qualitatively reviewed. Studies featuring a variety of naturally occurring and synthetic AX treatments were identified and included in the review. The majority of studies used haloperidol (HAL), a typical AP, to induce VCMs. Studies revealed reduced VCMs in co-treated rats, with favorable changes seen in markers of oxidative stress (OS) and AX status, but were limited by their short durations. Some preclinical evidence suggests that the inclusion of a naturally occurring and benign AX compound as an adjunct to AP treatment may help guard patients against TD, but additional long-duration studies are needed. This AX-based strategy is further substantiated by accumulating evidence of preexisting OS abnormalities in schizophrenia (SZ).Psychopharmacology 04/2014; 231(11). · 3.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the recent past, several phytoconstituents are being explored for their potential neuromodulatory effects in neurological diseases. Repeated exposure of acrylamide (ACR) leads to varying degree of neuronal damage in experimental animals and humans. In view of this, the present study investigated the efficacy of geraniol (GE, a natural monoterpene) to mitigate acrylamide (ACR) -induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and neurotoxicity in a rat model and compared its efficacy to that of curcumin (CU, a spice active principle with multiple biological activities). ACR administration (50 mg/kg bw, i.p. 3 times/week) for 4 weeks to growing rats caused typical symptoms of neuropathy. ACR rats provided with daily oral supplements of phytoconstituents (GE: 100 mg/kg bw/ d; CU: 50 mg/ kg bw/ d, 4 weeks) exhibited marked improvement in behavioral tests. Both phytoconstituents markedly attenuated ACR-induced oxidative stress as evidenced by the diminished levels of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide and restored the reduced glutathione levels in sciatic nerve (SN) and brain regions (cortex - Ct, cerebellum - Cb). Further, both phytoconstituents effectively diminished ACR -induced elevation in cytosolic calcium levels in SN and Cb. Furthermore, diminution in the levels of oxidative markers in the mitochondria was associated with elevation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. While ACR mediated elevation in the acetylcholinesterase activity was reduced by both actives, the depletion in dopamine levels was restored only by CU in brain regions. Taken together our findings for the first time demonstrate that the neuromodulatory propensity of GE is indeed comparable to that of CU and may be exploited as a therapeutic adjuvant in the management of varied human neuropathy conditions.Chemico-biological interactions. 09/2014;