Acquired dysfibrinogenemia caused by monoclonal production of immunoglobulin lambda light chain.
ABSTRACT Disorders of fibrinogen are usually caused by genetic mutations that result in low protein levels (hypofibrinogenemia) or an abnormal molecule (dysfibrinogenemia). However, environmental and plasma factors can have an acquired effect on its expression or function. For example, antibodies can bind fibrinogen and/or fibrin to interfere with polymerization and inhibit coagulation. The objective here was to determine the cause of dysfibrinogenemia in a 63-year-old man. Despite a low functional fibrinogen concentration and prolonged thrombin time, no inherited fibrinogen abnormality could be detected after extensive protein analysis and gene sequencing. Thus, electrophoresis methods and fibrinogen binding studies were used to establish the cause of the acquired dysfibrinogenemia. An immunoglobulin lambda light chain was found to bind fibrinogen as a monomer. It had no significant effect on fibrinopeptide release, but caused substantial defects in all other stages of thrombin-catalyzed fibrin polymerization. Binding to fibrinogen also seemed to prevent the light chain from being filtered through the kidneys, causing only low levels of it in the urine. Once in the urine, the lambda chain lost its anti-fibrinogen activity, apparently due to dimerization. The 63-year-old patient acquired dysfibrinogenemia from a monoclonal production of lambda light chain that bound and inhibited the function of fibrinogen. At age 64.5 he was diagnosed with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, explaining the abnormal immunoglobulin chain production. This case was particularly unusual in that the inhibition of fibrin polymerization was caused by a single immunoglobulin light chain, rather than by a whole antibody molecule.
- SourceAvailable from: onlinelibrary.wiley.comJournal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 05/2011; 9(7):1410-2. DOI:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2011.04337.x · 5.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abnormal coagulation properties indicative of a dysfibrinogen were found in the plasma of a 72-year-old male with multiple myeloma (IgGkappa, stage IIIA). The patient had high paraprotein concentration (85.75 g/l) and prolonged thrombin time (76.8 s), activated partial thromboplastin time (39.5 s), prothrombin time (23.5 s) and reptilase time (72.0 s). The fibrinogen level was increased. The fibrin polymerization induced by both thrombin and reptilase was impaired. Scanning electron microscopy revealed abnormal clot morphology. After six months of treatment, the paraprotein level decreased (19.48 g/l) and coagulation normalized as well as fibrin polymerization and fibrin clot morphology. It was found that the paraprotein interacts with the gamma-chain of fibrinogen. Acquired dysfibrinogenemia associated with multiple myeloma was diagnosed in the 72-year-old patient.Acta Haematologica 11/2008; 120(2):75-81. DOI:10.1159/000160182 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hereditary dysfibrinogenemia is a rare clotting disorder due to a structural defect in the fibrinogen molecule that results in a tendency for bleeding and thrombosis, as well as obstetric complications. We describe the laboratory results and clinical manifestations for 50 patients with a diagnosis of dysfibrinogenemia. Various different laboratory measurements of fibrinogen were performed on samples from these patients, including fibrinogen (Clauss), heat fibrinogen precipitation according to Schulz and immunological fibrinogen. Fifty patients were found with dysfibrinogenemia (52% female; median age 52, range 9-89 years). The fibrinogen level according to Clauss was low, with a median of 51 mg/dL (range 15-86 mg/dL; normal range 150-450 mg/dL). Determination of other fibrinogen levels revealed normal results: heat fibrinogen precipitation according to Schulz, 240 mg/dL; and immunological fibrinogen, 244 mg/dL. The median reptilase time was longer than normal, at 55 s (normal 20 s). Some 50% of the patients reported a distinct bleeding tendency, mostly a tendency for hematoma (60%) and secondary bleeding (44%). Thirteen patients had thrombotic events, of which 54% were located arterially. Some 12% of the patients reported a tendency for bleeding and for thrombosis, whereas 19% had miscarriages, sometimes recurrent. We found that functional fibrinogen levels (Clauss) were generally lower in patients with bleeding manifestations, (43 vs. 57 mg/dL in other patients).Laboratoriums Medizin 11/2008; 32(6):401-405. DOI:10.1515/JLM.2008.059 · 0.30 Impact Factor