Effect of egg yolk, cryoprotectant, and various sugars on semen cryopreservation in endangered Cuvier's gazelle (Gazella cuvieri)

Reproductive Biology Group, Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), 02071 Albacete, Spain.
Animal reproduction science (Impact Factor: 1.51). 11/2007; 108(3-4):384-401. DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2007.09.010
Source: PubMed


Cryopreservation of spermatozoa from endangered species is a valuable tool for genetic management. Previous studies showed the feasibility of cryopreservation of spermatozoa from various endangered gazelles but have also revealed difficulties with available protocols for semen freezing in Cuvier's gazelle (Gazella cuvieri). Experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of (a) 5% or 20% egg yolk or 4% or 6% glycerol, and (b) addition of sugars (glucose, fructose, lactose and raffinose) on cryopreservation using a Tes-Tris-based diluent (TEST). A diluent containing 13.5% raffinose, 5% or 20% egg yolk, and 6% glycerol (REYG) was also evaluated. Semen was obtained by electroejaculation from 22 G. cuvieri males. Diluted samples were loaded into 0.25 ml straws, cooled to 5 degrees C over 1.5h (-0.16 degrees C/min), equilibrated at that temperature for 2h, frozen in nitrogen vapours for 10 min and plunged into liquid nitrogen. Subsamples were assessed for motility and acrosome integrity upon collection, after refrigeration-equilibration, after freezing and thawing, and 2h after thawing. Use of TEST with 20% egg yolk or with 4% glycerol led to worse motility preservation, whereas TEST with 5% egg yolk and 6% glycerol led to better results. Addition of fructose, lactose or raffinose to TEST resulted in similar or worse preservation of motility than inclusion of glucose. On the other hand, use of a raffinose-based medium with 20% egg yolk and 6% glycerol (REYG) afforded better preservation of motility than use of TEST. With REYG, 20% egg yolk was better than 5% egg yolk for motility preservation. Differences were noted between males in their responses to cryopreservation when using different egg yolk or glycerol concentrations. Moreover, spermatozoa from most males exhibited better cryopreservation with REYG although some were better cryopreserved in TEST. The raffinose-based diluent thus represents an improvement over previous results but more work is needed to better characterize cryopreservation conditions for future routine banking of Cuvier's gazelle spermatozoa.

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Available from: Julian Garde, Oct 04, 2015
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    • "Lower concentrations (100 mM) were therefore chosen for cryopreserving at the ultrarapid cooling rate. The positive influence of this sugar on sperm cryopreservation is explained in that nonpermeable saccharides contribute to cell dehydration before freezing [55]. Cell dehydration, and the maintenance of the osmotic pressure of the diluents, reduces ice crystal formation in the spermatozoa, and allows vitrification by depressing the membrane phase transition temperature of the lipids present [50] [56] [57]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A method for cryopreserving wild ibex sperm at high cooling rates was developed. To design a freezing solution based on Tris, citric acid, and glucose (TCG), two preliminary experiments were performed using glycerol (GLY) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at different concentrations (5%, 10%, 20%). The 10% GLY + 10% DMSO combination reduced (P < 0.05) frozen-thawed sperm motility, which reached a minimum when 20% GLY + 20% DMSO was used. In the second experiment, sperm tolerance to three sucrose concentrations was evaluated (100-mM sucrose, 300-mM sucrose, 500-mM sucrose). Frozen-thawed sperm motility and sperm viability decreased (P < 0.05) at concentrations above 300 mM. The ultrarapid cooling procedure finally used involved a TCG egg yolk (ey)-based extender with 100-mM sucrose, either alone or with 5% GLY with or without BSA. Two warming procedures (37 °C vs. 60 °C) were also evaluated. The TCG ey with 100-mM sucrose but without GLY/BSA returned the best sperm quality variables. Slow warming at 37 °C strongly affected (P < 0.05) sperm motility and viability in all groups. Sperm selection by density gradient centrifugation produced no motile sperm when slow warming was performed. In contrast, when fast warming was used, sperm selection increased (P < 0.05) percentage of motility, viability, and the percentage of sperms with intact acrosomes. Heterologous in vivo fertilization involving domestic goats was performed to evaluate the in vivo fertilization capacity of the ultrarapidly cooled cryopreserved sperm (in TCG-ey + 100 mM sucrose), with warming undertaken at 60 °C. Inseminations of domestic goats resulted in three pregnancies (3 of 16, 18.7% fertility). In conclusion, ibex spermatozoa are strongly sensitive to high concentrations of permeable cryoprotectants and sucrose. However, the combination of ultrarapid cooling, using TCG-ey + 100-mM sucrose, and fast warming at 60 °C, followed by sperm selection by density gradient centrifugation to collect the motile sperm, has a positive effect on sperm viability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Theriogenology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.07.036 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    • "These may, in part, explain why the absolute levels of post-thaw semen quality in this study were low, despite using general techniques that had yielded better mean results in a previous study [45]. Differences in post-thaw semen quality between males and between ejaculates from a specific male have been reported for many species [12] [25] [16] [29]. The dairy cattle industry has selected bulls for AI that deliver spermatozoa able to withstand standard cryopreservation protocols well. "
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    ABSTRACT: Semen cryopreservation and artificial insemination (AI) are potentially valuable methods for supporting the breeding management of endangered species like the Asian elephant. Cryopreservation of Asian elephant semen has however proven problematic with respect to maintenance of both adequate semen quality and fertility post-thaw. In this study, nine ejaculates from three adult bulls were used to compare the influence of extender (TEST versus INRA96(®)) and penetrating cryoprotectants (3% glycerol, 5% glycerol and 4% methylformamide) on post-thaw semen quality. We demonstrate that not only the freezing process, but also the quality of the semen before freezing, significantly influences the freezability of Asian elephant semen. Pre-freeze motility, viability, semen volume, semen pH, sperm concentration and the incidence of sperm mid-piece and tail abnormalities all significantly (p<0.05) affected post-thaw semen quality. While extender and cryoprotectant did not significantly affect any of the above semen quality parameters post-thaw, the skim-milk based extender (INRA96(®)) preserved DNA integrity better (p<0.05) than the egg yolk extender (TEST). Considerable between-ejaculate variation in all post-thaw semen quality parameters was also noted. It is concluded that strict criteria for semen quality is essential for the selection of Asian elephant bull ejaculates suitable for cryopreservation; stricter initial selection should improve the mean post-thaw quality.
    Cryobiology 11/2012; 66(1). DOI:10.1016/j.cryobiol.2012.11.003 · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    • "Sugars such as raffinose (trisaccharide), trehalose (disaccharide ) and fructose (monosaccharide) play a role in the protection of post-thaw sperm viability by providing an energy source, promoting the excretion of water out of the cell so as to decrease intracellular ice crystal formation, and maintaining the osmotic pressure of the extender. However, their protective effects are dependent on storage temperature, molecular weight, and the particular buffer used in the extender [1] [13] [14]. The beneficial antioxidative and protective effects of sugars against the cold shock and freeze–thaw damage of sperm have been reported in many studies [21] [43]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the protective effects of supplementation with three different sugars on the motility, morphology and DNA integrity of rat epididymal sperm chilled and stored at 4°C Epididymides were obtained from each donor. Rat epididymal sperm was diluted in Ham's F10 plus raffinose, Ham's F10 plus trehalose, Ham's F10 plus fructose, and Ham's F10 medium for control purposes. Thereafter, the extended sperm were chilled and stored in liquid form at 4°C. Sperm motility, morphological abnormalities and DNA damage were determined at 0 and 12h after chilling. No significant difference was observed in any of the parameters evaluated at 0h, before storage (P>0.05). After 12h of storage, all sugar additives led to statistically higher motility, normal sperm morphology and DNA integrity in comparison to the control group. Raffinose gave the best motility percentages (32.86±1.84%) after 12h of storage at 4°C, compared to the other groups (P<0.001). In conclusion, Raffinose, trehalose and fructose provided a better protection of sperm functional parameters against chilling injury, in comparison to the control group.
    Cryobiology 05/2012; 65(2):93-7. DOI:10.1016/j.cryobiol.2012.05.007 · 1.59 Impact Factor
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