Intravenous transfusion of BCR-activated B cells protects NOD mice from type 1 diabetes in an IL-10-dependent manner.

Laboratory of Autoimmune Diabetes, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 01/2008; 179(11):7225-32. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.179.11.7225
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although B cells play a pathogenic role in the initiation of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in NOD mice, it is not known whether activated B cells can maintain tolerance and transfer protection from T1D. In this study, we demonstrate that i.v. transfusion of BCR-stimulated NOD spleen B cells into NOD mice starting at 5-6 wk of age both delays onset and reduces the incidence of T1D, whereas treatment initiated at 9 wk of age only delays onset of T1D. This BCR-activated B cell-induced protection from T1D requires IL-10 production by B cells, as transfusion of activated B cells from NOD.IL-10(-/-) mice does not confer protection from T1D. Consistent with this result, severe insulitis was observed in the islets of NOD recipients of transfused NOD.IL-10(-/-) BCR-stimulated B cells but not in the islets of NOD recipients of transfused BCR-stimulated NOD B cells. The therapeutic effect of transfused activated NOD B cells correlates closely with the observed decreased islet inflammation, reduced IFN-gamma production and increased production of IL-4 and IL-10 by splenocytes and CD4(+) T cells from NOD recipients of BCR-stimulated NOD B cells relative to splenocytes and CD4(+) T cells from PBS-treated control NOD mice. Our data demonstrate that transfused BCR-stimulated B cells can maintain long-term tolerance and protect NOD mice from T1D by an IL-10-dependent mechanism, and raise the possibility that i.v. transfusion of autologous IL-10-producing BCR-activated B cells may be used therapeutically to protect human subjects at risk for T1D.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Immune suppression by regulatory T cells and regulatory B cells is a critical mechanism to limit excess inflammation and autoimmunity. IL-10 is considered the major mediator of B cell-induced immune suppression. We report a novel mechanism for immune suppression through adenosine generation by B cells. We identified a novel population of B cells that expresses CD73 as well as CD39, two ectoenzymes that together catalyze the extracellular dephosphorylation of adenine nucleotides to adenosine. Whereas CD39 expression is common among B cells, CD73 expression is not. Approximately 30-50% of B-1 cells (B220(+)CD23(-)) and IL-10-producing B (B10) cells (B220(+)CD5(+)CD1d(hi)) are CD73(hi), depending on mouse strain, whereas few conventional B-2 cells (B220(+)CD23(+)AA4.1(-)) express CD73. In keeping with expression of both CD73 and CD39, we found that CD73(+) B cells produce adenosine in the presence of substrate, whereas B-2 cells do not. CD73(-/-) mice were more susceptible to dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS)-induced colitis than wild type (WT) mice were, and transfer of CD73(+) B cells ameliorated the severity of colitis, suggesting that B cell CD73/CD39/adenosine can modulate DSS-induced colitis. IL-10 production by B cells is not affected by CD73 deficiency. Interestingly, adenosine generation by IL-10(-/-) B cells is impaired because of reduced expression of CD73, indicating an unexpected connection between IL-10 and adenosine and suggesting caution in interpreting the results of studies with IL-10(-/-) cells. Our findings demonstrate a novel regulatory role of B cells on colitis through adenosine generation in an IL-10-independent manner.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2014; 193(12). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1400336 · 5.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate the influence of Fingolimod treatment on B-cell subset composition and function in multiple sclerosis patients and its potential clinical relevance.Methods Subset composition and cytokine production of B cells derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from multiple sclerosis patients under Fingolimod treatment, untreated multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls were analyzed by flow cytometry and ELISA. Migration of lymphocyte subsets across primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells was assessed in an in vitro transmigration assay. Cell numbers and composition of B-cell subsets in cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood were determined by flow cytometry. Regulatory B-cell frequencies were correlated with parameters of disease stability.ResultsWithin the peripheral B-cell compartment of Fingolimod-treated patients, the proportion of regulatory B cells (CD38+CD27−CD24+CD5+) was significantly increased as compared to treatment-naïve multiple sclerosis patients and to healthy controls, and significantly more regulatory B cells produced Interleukin-10. Fingolimod treatment enhanced the capacity of regulatory B cells to transmigrate across brain endothelial cells in an in vitro model of the blood-brain-barrier. In line with these findings, the cerebrospinal fluid/blood ratio of total B cells and regulatory B cells was strongly increased by Fingolimod treatment, and patients exhibited increased regulatory B-cell frequencies in the cerebrospinal fluid. Finally, elevated regulatory B-cell percentages in the periphery significantly correlated with clinical and paraclinical disease stability.InterpretationThese data suggest a novel and as yet unrecognized role of Fingolimod in correction of the imbalance between regulatory and effector B-cell functions in multiple sclerosis both by direct effects and indirect partitioning effects on B-cell subpopulations.
    12/2014; 2(2). DOI:10.1002/acn3.155
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Regulatory T (Treg) cells play a critical role in the maintenance of tolerance. B-1a cells belong to a specific and functionally important B-cell subset that exerts its regulatory role through the production of IL-10. While IL-10 has been correlated with the induction of type 1 Treg (Tr1) cells or Tr1-like cells, whether IL-10-producing B-1a cells are able to induce Treg cells, especially the Tr1 lineage, is poorly understood. We have demonstrated that, similar to the reported B-2 cells, B-1a cells are able to convert naïve CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells into a subset of T cells with suppressive function, which we called 'Treg-of-B1a' cells. Treg-of-B1a cells do not express Foxp3, but upregulate the Treg markers OX40, programmed death 1 (PD-1), inducible costimulator (ICOS) and IL-10R. Moreover, Treg-of-B1a cells do not express Foxp3 and produce high levels of IFN-γ and IL-10, but minimal amounts of IL-4; therefore, they resemble Tr1 cells. However, utilizing IL-10(-/-) mice, we showed that IL-10 was not involved in the induction of Treg-of-B1a cells. On the contrary, CD86-mediated costimulation was essential for B-1a cells to drive the induction of Treg-of-B1a cells. Finally, we demonstrated that, in contrast to the Treg cells generated by B-2 cells that mediate contact-dependent suppression, Treg-of-B1a cells suppress through secreting soluble factors. While Tr1 cells mediate suppression mainly through IL-10 or TGF-β secretion, Treg-of-B1a cells mediate suppression through an IL-10- and TGF-β-independent pathway. Together, these findings suggest that B-1a cells induce a functionally and phenotypically distinct Treg population that is dissimilar to the reported Foxp3(+) Treg or Tr1 cells.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 18 August 2014; doi:10.1038/cmi.2014.56.
    Cellular & molecular immunology 08/2014; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2014.56 · 4.19 Impact Factor


Available from