Intravenous Transfusion of BCR-Activated B Cells Protects NOD Mice from Type 1 Diabetes in an IL-10-Dependent Manner

Laboratory of Autoimmune Diabetes, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 4.92). 01/2008; 179(11):7225-32. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.179.11.7225
Source: PubMed


Although B cells play a pathogenic role in the initiation of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in NOD mice, it is not known whether activated B cells can maintain tolerance and transfer protection from T1D. In this study, we demonstrate that i.v. transfusion of BCR-stimulated NOD spleen B cells into NOD mice starting at 5-6 wk of age both delays onset and reduces the incidence of T1D, whereas treatment initiated at 9 wk of age only delays onset of T1D. This BCR-activated B cell-induced protection from T1D requires IL-10 production by B cells, as transfusion of activated B cells from NOD.IL-10(-/-) mice does not confer protection from T1D. Consistent with this result, severe insulitis was observed in the islets of NOD recipients of transfused NOD.IL-10(-/-) BCR-stimulated B cells but not in the islets of NOD recipients of transfused BCR-stimulated NOD B cells. The therapeutic effect of transfused activated NOD B cells correlates closely with the observed decreased islet inflammation, reduced IFN-gamma production and increased production of IL-4 and IL-10 by splenocytes and CD4(+) T cells from NOD recipients of BCR-stimulated NOD B cells relative to splenocytes and CD4(+) T cells from PBS-treated control NOD mice. Our data demonstrate that transfused BCR-stimulated B cells can maintain long-term tolerance and protect NOD mice from T1D by an IL-10-dependent mechanism, and raise the possibility that i.v. transfusion of autologous IL-10-producing BCR-activated B cells may be used therapeutically to protect human subjects at risk for T1D.

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    • "Although the specific function of this Breg population is yet to be elucidated, they can suppress antigen presentation [38] and promote anti-inflammatory Th2 immune responses [37]. Activated B cells also prevent autoimmune diabetes development in NOD mice, via an IL-10 dependent mechanism [39]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Infections with helminth parasites prevent/attenuate auto-inflammatory disease. Here we show that molecules secreted by a helminth parasite could prevent Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. When delivered at 4 weeks of age (coincident with the initiation of autoimmunity), the excretory/secretory products of Fasciola hepatica (FhES) prevented the onset of T1D, with 84% of mice remaining normoglycaemic and insulitis-free at 30 weeks of age. Disease protection was associated with suppression of IFN-γ secretion from autoreactive T cells and a switch to the production of a regulatory isotype (from IgG2a to IgG1) of autoantibody. Following FhES injection, peritoneal macrophages converted to a regulatory M2 phenotype, characterised by increased expression levels of Ym1, Arg-1, TGFβ and PD-L1. Expression of these M2 genetic markers increased in the pancreatic lymph nodes and the pancreas of FhES-treated mice. In vitro, FhES-stimulated M2 macrophages induced the differentiation of Tregs from splenocytes isolated from naïve NOD mice. Collectively, our data shows that FhES contains immune-modulatory molecules that mediate protection from autoimmune diabetes via the induction and maintenance of a regulatory immune environment.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86289. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0086289 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Given the requirement to provide CD40 stimulation for Bregs to expand [52], [76], [77], [78], one potential signal concurrent with BCR activation could be CD40 Ligand. BCR-activated B-cells produce IL-10 and their adoptive transfer into NOD mice reduced disease incidence and severity [79]. CD40 Ligand is expressed on TLR9-activated myeloid DC [80], as well as on activated CD4+ T-cells [81], [82] which operate through B∶T-cell interactions [83], [84], [85]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to identify immune cell populations, in addition to Foxp3+ T-regulatory cells, that participate in the mechanisms of action of tolerogenic dendritic cells shown to prevent and reverse type 1 diabetes in the Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) mouse strain. Co-culture experiments using tolerogenic dendritic cells and B-cells from NOD as well as transgenic interleukin-10 promoter-reporter mice along with transfer of tolerogenic dendritic cells and CD19+ B-cells into NOD and transgenic mice, showed that these dendritic cells increased the frequency and numbers of interleukin-10-expressing B-cells in vitro and in vivo. The expansion of these cells was a consequence of both the proliferation of pre-existing interleukin-10-expressing B-lymphocytes and the conversion of CD19+ B-lymphcytes into interleukin-10-expressing cells. The tolerogenic dendritic cells did not affect the suppressive activity of these B-cells. Furthermore, we discovered that the suppressive murine B-lymphocytes expressed receptors for retinoic acid which is produced by the tolerogenic dendritic cells. These data assist in identifying the nature of the B-cell population increased in response to the tolerogenic dendritic cells in a clinical trial and also validate very recent findings demonstrating a mechanistic link between human tolerogenic dendritic cells and immunosuppressive regulatory B-cells.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e83575. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0083575 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Since then, B-cells have been shown to inhibit inflammation and autoimmunity in various mouse models. Tolerizing B-cells inhibited effector T-cells whether they have been polarized toward effector Th1, Th17, or Th2 cells (22–24). Their effect was often attributed to local provision of IL-10 although in some instances TGFbeta was the prominent cytokine involved in tolerance induction (25). "
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    ABSTRACT: Solid organs have been transplanted for decades. Since the improvement in graft selection and in medical and surgical procedures, the likelihood of graft function after 1 year is now close to 90%. Nonetheless even well-matched recipients continue to need medications for the rest of their lives hence adverse side effects and enhanced morbidity. Understanding Immune rejection mechanisms, is of increasing importance since the greater use of living-unrelated donors and genetically unmatched individuals. Chronic rejection is devoted to T-cells, however the role of B-cells in rejection has been appreciated recently by the observation that B-cell depletion improve graft survival. By contrast however, B-cells can be beneficial to the grafted tissue. This protective effect is secondary to either the secretion of protective antibodies or the induction of B-cells that restrain excessive inflammatory responses, chiefly by local provision of IL-10, or inhibit effector T-cells by direct cellular interactions. As a proof of concept B-cell-mediated infectious transplantation tolerance could be achieved in animal models, and evidence emerged that the presence of such B-cells in transplanted patients correlate with a favorable outcome. Among these populations, regulatory B-cells constitute a recently described population. These cells may develop as a feedback mechanism to prevent uncontrolled reactivity to antigens and inflammatory stimuli. The difficult task for the clinician, is to quantify the respective ratios and functions of "tolerant" vs. effector B-cells within a transplanted organ, at a given time point in order to modulate B-cell-directed therapy. Several receptors at the B-cell membrane as well as signaling molecules, can now be targeted for this purpose. Understanding the temporal expansion of regulatory B-cells in grafted patients and the stimuli that activate them will help in the future to implement specific strategies aimed at fighting chronic allograft rejection.
    Frontiers in Immunology 12/2013; 4:444. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2013.00444
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