Homocysteine induces monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in hepatocytes mediated via activator protein-1 activation.
ABSTRACT Hyperhomocysteinemia is characterized by abnormally high concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy) in the plasma. It is a metabolic disorder associated with dysfunction of several organs such as atherosclerosis, altered lipid metabolism, and liver injury. In this study we investigated the effect of Hcy on transcriptional regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a potent chemokine, expression in hepatocytes. Hyperhomocysteinemia was induced in rats by a high-methionine diet for 4 weeks. MCP-1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly elevated in the liver tissue homogenate and in hepatocytes of hyperhomocysteinemic rats. The role of transcription factors in MCP-1 expression was examined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Activation of activator protein (AP)-1 but not nuclear factor kappaB was detected in the liver tissue of those rats. Incubation of rat hepatocytes with Hcy (50-200 microm) caused a significant increase in AP-1 activation followed by an increase in intracellular MCP-1 mRNA expression and an elevation of MCP-1 protein secreted into the culture medium. Hcy markedly increased the DNA binding activity of human recombinant AP-1 (c-Fos and c-Jun proteins). The presence of a sulfhydryl group in Hcy was essential for Hcy-induced AP-1 activation. When hepatocytes were transfected with decoy AP-1 oligodeoxynucleotide to inhibit AP-1 activation, Hcy-induced MCP-1 mRNA expression was abolished. Further analysis revealed that increased hepatic MCP-1 expression was positively correlated with the serum MCP-1 level. These results suggest that Hcy-induced MCP-1 expression in the liver is mediated via AP-1 activation, which may contribute to chronic inflammation associated with hyperhomocysteinemia.
- SourceAvailable from: Maja RuettenJournal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 01/2014; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibition capacity of telmisartan to endothelial inflammation induced by homocysteine (Hcy) and discuss the proposed mechanism in vitro. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were prepared by collagenase digestion and cultured in vitro. An increase in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) as markers of Hcy-induced endothelial inflammation. HL-60 cell adhesion to HUVECs was measured by rose bengal staining. Nuclear, cytosolic and total nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 levels were analyzed by western blotting. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARδ) expression by HUVECs exposed to Hcy with or without telmisartan pretreatment was analyzed by RT-PCR and western blotting. Hcy significantly increased the levels of MCP-1 mRNA, VCAM-1 mRNA and monocyte binding to HUVECs. These effects were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with telmisartan and PPARδ agonists. The effect of telmisartan was inhibited by PPARδ antagonists. The Hcy-mediated downregulation of PPARδ mRNA and protein of HUVECs was inhibited by telmisartan. Hcy-mediated upregulation of NF-κB p65 protein levels in nuclear extracts was inhibited by telmisartan and PPARδ agonists. In conclusion, telmisartan exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in endothelial cells, probably via a binary mechanism involving PPARδ activation and inhibition of the nuclear translocation of NF-κB.International Journal of Molecular Medicine 07/2014; · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) catalyze homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism via the trans-sulfuration pathway. They are also responsible for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production via desulfuration reactions. The liver contributes significantly to the regulation of Hcy and H2S homeostasis, which might participate in many physiological and pathological processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a high-fat diet (HFD) on hepatic CBS and CSE expression and its impact on Hcy and H2S metabolism. Mice (C57BL/6) fed a HFD (60% kcal fat) for 5 weeks developed fatty liver. The mRNA and protein levels of CBS and CSE in the liver were significantly elevated in mice fed a HFD. Subsequently the metabolism of Hcy by CBS and CSE was increased in the liver, and its level decreased in the circulation. Increased CBS and CSE expression also caused a significant elevation in H2S production in the liver. The level of lipid peroxides was elevated, indicating oxidative stress, while the level of total glutathione remained unchanged in the liver of HFD-fed mice. Upregulation of the trans-sulfuration pathway might play an adaptive role against oxidative stress by maintaining total glutathione levels in the liver.Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 11/2013; 91(11):913-919. · 1.56 Impact Factor