Validation of grading scale for evaluating symptoms of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND/AIMS: We developed an idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus grading scale (iNPHGS) to classify a triad of disorders (cognitive impairment, gait disturbance and urinary disturbance) of iNPH with a wide range of severity. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of this scale in 38 patients with iNPH. RESULTS: The interrater reliability of this scale was high. The iNPHGS cognitive domain score significantly correlated with the cognitive test scores, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the gait domain score with the Up and Go Test and Gait Status Scale scores, and the urinary domain score with the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) score. The MMSE, Gait Status Scale and ICIQ-SF scores significantly improved in patients whose iNPHGS scores improved after CSF tapping but not in those whose iNPHGS scores did not improve after CSF tapping. Fourteen of the 38 patients received shunt operations. In these 14 patients, changes in the iNPHGS cognitive and urinary domains after CSF tapping were significantly associated with the changes after the shunt operation.
Article: The neuropsychology of patients with clinically diagnosed idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To compare the neuropsychological performance of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) with that of healthy individuals and to examine its relation to neurological signs, vascular comorbidity, and background factors. A consecutive series of 58 patients with INPH underwent neurological, neuroradiological, and neuropsychological examinations. The neuropsychological tests, measuring vigilance, fine movements of the hands, learning, working memory, and aspects of executive functioning, were also administered to 108 healthy individuals. Patients performed worse than healthy individuals on all included tests. Significant correlations between test results were more frequent and stronger among patients and the degree of neuropsychological impairment was related to the severity of other signs of INPH. Patients with vascular risk factors performed worse than those without. The neuropsychological deficits in INPH are widely distributed, interrelated, associated with neurological signs, and aggravated by vascular comorbidity.Neurosurgery 01/2008; 61(6):1219-26; discussion 1227-8. · 2.79 Impact Factor
Article: Diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus is supported by MRI-based scheme: a prospective cohort study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a treatable neurological syndrome in the elderly. Although the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of tight high-convexity and medial subarachnoid spaces and the ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt with programmable valve are reportedly useful for diagnosis and treatment, respectively, their clinical significance remains to be validated. We conducted a multicenter prospective study (Study of Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus on Neurological Improvement: SINPHONI) to evaluate the utility of the MRI-based diagnosis for determining the 1-year outcome after VP shunt with the Codman-Hakim programmable valve. Twenty-six centers in Japan were involved in this study. Patients aged between 60 and 85 years with one or more of symptoms (gait, cognitive, and urinary problems) and MRI evidence of ventriculomegaly and tight high-convexity and medial subarachnoid spaces received VP shunt using the height/weight-based valve pressure-setting scheme. The primary endpoint was a favorable outcome (improvement of one level or more on the modified Rankin Scale: mRS) at one year after surgery, and the secondary endpoints included improvement of one point or more on the total score of the iNPH grading scale. Shunt responder was defined by more than one level on mRS at any evaluation point in one year. The full analysis set included 100 patients. A favorable outcome was achieved in 69.0% and 80.0% were shunt responders. When measured with the iNPH grading scale, the one-year improvement rate was 77.0%, and response to the surgery at any evaluation point was detected in 89.0%. Serious adverse events were recorded in 15 patients, three of which were events related to surgery or VP shunt. Subdural effusion and orthostatic headache were reported as non-serious shunt-related adverse events, which were well controlled with readjustment of pressure. The MRI-based diagnostic scheme is highly useful. Tight high-convexity and medial subarachnoid spaces, and enlarged Sylvian fissures with ventriculomegaly, defined as disproportionately enlarged subarachnoid-space hydrocephalus (DESH), are worthwhile for the diagnosis of iNPH. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00221091.Cerebrospinal Fluid Research 10/2010; 7:18. · 1.81 Impact Factor