We studied seven children with CNS folate deficiency (CFD). All cases exhibited psychomotor retardation, regression, cognitive delay, and dyskinesia; six had seizures; four demonstrated neurological abnormalities in the neonatal period. Two subjects had profound neurological abnormalities that precluded formal behavioral testing. Five subjects received ADOS and ADI-R testing and met diagnostic criteria for autism or autism spectrum disorders. They exhibited difficulties with transitions, insistence on sameness, unusual sensory interests, and repetitive behaviors. Those with the best language skills largely used repetitive phrases. No mutations were found in folate transporter or folate enzyme genes. These findings demonstrate that autistic features are salient in CFD and suggest that a subset of children with developmental regression, mental retardation, seizures, dyskinesia, and autism may have CNS folate abnormalities.
"Each child may have different metabolic pathologies related to SNPs, nutrient deficiencies, and toxic exposures. Examples of metabolic disorders that can lead to an autistic-like presentation include phenylketonuria (PKU) (37), disorders of purine metabolism (38), biotinidase deficiency (39), cerebral folate deficiency (40), creatine deficiency (41), and excess propionic acid (which is produced by Clostridium) (42, 43). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are complex, heterogeneous disorders caused by an interaction between genetic vulnerability and environmental factors. In an effort to better target the underlying roots of ASD for diagnosis and treatment, efforts to identify reliable biomarkers in genetics, neuroimaging, gene expression, and measures of the body's metabolism are growing. For this article, we review the published studies of potential biomarkers in autism and conclude that while there is increasing promise of finding biomarkers that can help us target treatment, there are none with enough evidence to support routine clinical use unless medical illness is suspected. Promising biomarkers include those for mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and immune function. Genetic clusters are also suggesting the potential for useful biomarkers.
Frontiers in Psychiatry 08/2014; 5:100. DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00100
"took folic acid supplements daily showed significant improvement in global cognitive functioning (Malouf and Grimley Evans, 2008) and a similar effect was observed in school-aged girls supplemented with both folate and iron (Sen and Kanani, 2009). Likewise, folate deficiency in the CNS causes cognitive deficits such as dyskinesia, psychomotor retardation, intellectual delay (Moretti et al., 2008), and low folate levels were found to be associated with reduced memory function (Morris et al., 2001). 5,10-Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase is known to be a critical player in the development of the CNS in humans. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Disulfiram is a one of the few pharmacotherapies for cocaine addiction that shows promise. Since disulfiram and cocaine both affect levels of global methylation we hypothesized the MTHFR gene, whose product is involved in supplying methyl groups for DNA and protein methylation, may be associated with responsiveness to disulfiram in cocaine-dependent individuals. Methods: Sixty-seven cocaine-dependent patients were stabilized on methadone for 2 weeks and then randomized into disulfiram (250 mg/day, N = 32) and placebo groups (N = 35) for 10 weeks. Patients were genotyped for the MTHFR (rs1801133, also known as C677T) polymorphism and the data was evaluated for association with cocaine-free urines in the disulfiram or placebo groups. Data from patients that completed all 10 weeks of the study (N = 56) were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), corrected for population structure. Results: The CT or TT MTHFR genotype group (N = 32) dropped from 73 to 52% cocaine-positive urines on disulfiram (p = 0.0001), while the placebo group showed no treatment effect. The CC MTHFR genotype group (N = 24) showed a smaller, but still significant, reduction in cocaine-positive urines on disulfiram compared to placebo; 81-69% (p = 0.007). Conclusion: This study indicates that a patient's MTHFR genotype may be used to identify individuals who might show improved response to disulfiram treatment for cocaine dependence. Clinical Trial: Pharmacogenetics of Disulfiram for Cocaine, clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00149630, NIDA-18197-2, NCT00149630.
Frontiers in Psychiatry 01/2012; 3:109. DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2012.00109
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