Targeting selectins and selectin ligands in inflammation and cancer

Harvard Skin Disease Research Center, Department of Dermatology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Harvard Institutes of Medicine, Room 669, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets (Impact Factor: 4.9). 12/2007; 11(11):1473-91. DOI: 10.1517/14728222.11.11.1473
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Inflammation and cancer metastasis are associated with extravasation of leukocytes or tumor cells from blood into tissue. Such movement is believed to follow a coordinated and sequential molecular cascade initiated, in part, by the three members of the selectin family of carbohydrate-binding proteins: E-selectin (CD62E), L-selectin (CD62L) and P-selectin (CD62P). E-selectin is particularly noteworthy in disease by virtue of its expression on activated endothelium and on bone-skin microvascular linings and for its role in cell rolling, cell signaling and chemotaxis. E-selectin, along with L- or P-selectin, mediates cell tethering and rolling interactions through the recognition of sialo-fucosylated Lewis carbohydrates expressed on structurally diverse protein-lipid ligands on circulating leukocytes or tumor cells. Major advances in understanding the role of E-selectin in inflammation and cancer have been advanced by experiments assaying E-selectin-mediated rolling of leukocytes and tumor cells under hydrodynamic shear flow, by clinical models of E-selectin-dependent inflammation, by mice deficient in E-selectin and by mice deficient in glycosyltransferases that regulate the binding activity of E-selectin ligands. Here, the authors elaborate on how E-selectin and its ligands may facilitate leukocyte or tumor cell recruitment in inflammatory and metastatic settings. Antagonists that target cellular interactions with E-selectin and other members of the selectin family, including neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, competitive ligand inhibitors or metabolic carbohydrate mimetics, exemplify a growing arsenal of potentially effective therapeutics in controlling inflammation and the metastatic behavior of cancer.

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    ABSTRACT: Metastasis refers to the spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to distant organs mostly via the bloodstream. During the metastatic process, cancer cells invade blood vessels to enter circulation, and later exit the vasculature at a distant site. Endothelial cells that line blood vessels normally serve as a barrier to the movement of cells into or out of the blood. It is thus critical to understand how metastatic cancer cells overcome the endothelial barrier. Epithelial cancer cells acquire increased motility and invasiveness through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which enables them to move toward vasculature. Cancer cells also express a variety of adhesion molecules that allow them to attach to vascular endothelium. Finally, cancer cells secrete or induce growth factors and cytokines to actively prompt vascular hyperpermeability that compromises endothelial barrier function and facilitates transmigration of cancer cells through the vascular wall. Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying metastatic dissemination may help develop new anti-metastasis therapeutics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Cancer Letters 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2014.10.031
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    ABSTRACT: Background:C-Fos was initially described as oncogene, but was associated with favourable prognosis in ovarian cancer (OvCa) patients. The molecular and functional aspects underlying this effect are still unknown.Methods:Using stable transfectants of SKOV3 and OVCAR8 cells, proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptotic potential of c-FOS-overexpressing clones and controls were compared. Adherence to components of the extracellular matrix was analysed in static assays, and adhesion to E-selectin, endothelial and mesothelial cells in dynamic flow assays. The effect of c-FOS in vivo was studied after intraperitoneal injection of SKOV3 clones into SCID mice, and changes in gene expression were determined by microarray analysis.Results:Tumour growth after injection into SCID mice was strongly delayed by c-FOS overexpression, with reduction of lung metastases and circulating tumour cells. In vitro, c-FOS had only weak influence on proliferation and migration, but was strongly pro-apoptotic. Adhesion to components of the extracellular matrix (collagen I, IV) and to E-selectin, endothelial and mesothelial cells was significantly reduced in c-FOS-overexpressing OvCa cells. This corresponds to deregulation of adhesion proteins and glycosylation enzymes in microarray analysis.Conclusion:In addition to its known pro-apoptotic effect, c-FOS might influence OvCa progression by changing the adhesion of OvCa cells to peritoneal surfaces.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 5 December 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.774
    British Journal of Cancer 12/2013; 110(3). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2013.774
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Expression of the adhesion molecule L1-CAM (L1) has been shown to correlate with early recurrence in breast cancer. Here, we investigated whether L1-CAM expression of breast cancer cells might influence adherence to human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC) and thus promote metastasis. METHODS: MDA-MB231-Fra2 breast cancer cells that express high levels of L1-CAM (L1(high) cells) were stably transfected to generate clones with strong L1-CAM downregulation. Adhesion to activated HPMEC was studied in dynamic cell flow and static assays. Potential binding partners on endothelial cells were identified by blocking experiments and adhesion assays after coating of the flow channels with recombinant proteins. RESULTS: Adhesion of L1(high) cells to activated HPMEC was significantly higher compared to L1l(ow) clones under flow conditions. Blocking experiments and adhesion assays with recombinant proteins identified activated leucocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) or L1 itself, but not ICAM-1, as potential binding partners on endothelial cells. E-selectin blocking antibodies strongly diminished the adherence of breast cancer cells irrespective of their L1-CAM expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our experiments indicate that L1-CAM expression on breast cancer cells can promote adherence to activated endothelial cells by binding to endothelial L1-CAM or ALCAM. This mechanism might lead to increased metastasis and a poor prognosis in L1-CAM-positive carcinomas in vivo. Therefore, L1-CAM might be a suitable therapeutic target in breast cancers with a high L1-CAM expression.
    Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 09/2012; DOI:10.1007/s00432-012-1306-z


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