Targeting selectins and selectin ligands in inflammation and cancer

Harvard Skin Disease Research Center, Department of Dermatology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Harvard Institutes of Medicine, Room 669, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets (Impact Factor: 5.14). 12/2007; 11(11):1473-91. DOI: 10.1517/14728222.11.11.1473
Source: PubMed


Inflammation and cancer metastasis are associated with extravasation of leukocytes or tumor cells from blood into tissue. Such movement is believed to follow a coordinated and sequential molecular cascade initiated, in part, by the three members of the selectin family of carbohydrate-binding proteins: E-selectin (CD62E), L-selectin (CD62L) and P-selectin (CD62P). E-selectin is particularly noteworthy in disease by virtue of its expression on activated endothelium and on bone-skin microvascular linings and for its role in cell rolling, cell signaling and chemotaxis. E-selectin, along with L- or P-selectin, mediates cell tethering and rolling interactions through the recognition of sialo-fucosylated Lewis carbohydrates expressed on structurally diverse protein-lipid ligands on circulating leukocytes or tumor cells. Major advances in understanding the role of E-selectin in inflammation and cancer have been advanced by experiments assaying E-selectin-mediated rolling of leukocytes and tumor cells under hydrodynamic shear flow, by clinical models of E-selectin-dependent inflammation, by mice deficient in E-selectin and by mice deficient in glycosyltransferases that regulate the binding activity of E-selectin ligands. Here, the authors elaborate on how E-selectin and its ligands may facilitate leukocyte or tumor cell recruitment in inflammatory and metastatic settings. Antagonists that target cellular interactions with E-selectin and other members of the selectin family, including neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, competitive ligand inhibitors or metabolic carbohydrate mimetics, exemplify a growing arsenal of potentially effective therapeutics in controlling inflammation and the metastatic behavior of cancer.

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    • "Different selectins like E-selectin (CD62E), L-selectin (CD62L) and P-selectin (CD62P) have been implicated in tethering and rolling of cancer cells on ECs [177]. However, the rolling behavior of cancer cells has been exemplified only in vitro [178] [179] and so far there is no in vivo supporting evidence. "
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    ABSTRACT: Metastasis refers to the spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to distant organs mostly via the bloodstream. During the metastatic process, cancer cells invade blood vessels to enter circulation, and later exit the vasculature at a distant site. Endothelial cells that line blood vessels normally serve as a barrier to the movement of cells into or out of the blood. It is thus critical to understand how metastatic cancer cells overcome the endothelial barrier. Epithelial cancer cells acquire increased motility and invasiveness through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which enables them to move toward vasculature. Cancer cells also express a variety of adhesion molecules that allow them to attach to vascular endothelium. Finally, cancer cells secrete or induce growth factors and cytokines to actively prompt vascular hyperpermeability that compromises endothelial barrier function and facilitates transmigration of cancer cells through the vascular wall. Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying metastatic dissemination may help develop new anti-metastasis therapeutics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Cancer Letters 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2014.10.031 · 5.62 Impact Factor
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    • "Sialyl Lewis x and sialyl Lewis A are the carbohydrate determinants needed for selectin binding. These carbohydrates are linked to glycoconjugates in Golgi compartment through activity of N-acetylglucosaminyl-, galactosyl-, sialyl- and fucosyltransferases [42]. Thomas et al. provided evidence that CEA of the colon cancer cell line LS147T is a functional E-selectin ligand and knock down of CEA leads to loss of E-selectin binding [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Metastasis formation is the major reason for the extremely poor prognosis in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients. The molecular interaction partners regulating metastasis formation in SCLC are largely unidentified, however, from other tumor entities it is known that tumor cells use the adhesion molecules of the leukocyte adhesion cascade to attach to the endothelium at the site of the future metastasis. Using the human OH-1 SCLC line as a model, we found that these cells expressed E- and P-selectin binding sites, which could be in part attributed to the selectin binding carbohydrate motif sialyl Lewis A. In addition, protein backbones known to carry these glycotopes in other cell lines including PSGL-1, CD44 and CEA could be detected in in vitro and in vivo grown OH1 SCLC cells. By intravital microscopy of murine mesenterial vasculature we could capture SCLC cells while rolling along vessel walls demonstrating that SCLC cells mimic leukocyte rolling behavior in terms of selectin and selectin ligand interaction in vivo indicating that this mechanism might indeed be important for SCLC cells to seed distant metastases. Accordingly, formation of spontaneous distant metastases was reduced by 50% when OH-1 cells were xenografted into E-/P-selectin-deficient mice compared with wild type mice (p = 0.0181). However, as metastasis formation was not completely abrogated in selectin deficient mice, we concluded that this adhesion cascade is redundant and that other molecules of this cascade mediate metastasis formation as well. Using several of these adhesion molecules as interaction partners presumably make SCLC cells so highly metastatic.
    PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e92327. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0092327 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "These include, but not all, the HECA-452 antigen bearing PSGL-1 (CLA), a glycoform of CD44 (HCELL), ESL-1, CD24, death receptor 3, L-selectin, and β2 integrins [1,28]. PSGL-1/CLA has been shown to bind all the three selectins and have been observed as the major E-selectin glycoprotein ligand present on prostate tumor cells [49]. Detection of sLex has shown a direct association between its presence and grade of prostate cancers [50,51]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hematogenous metastasis accounts for the majority of cancer-related deaths, yet the mechanism remains unclear. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood may employ different pathways to cross blood endothelial barrier and establish a metastatic niche. Several studies provide evidence that prostate cancer (PCa) cell tethering and rolling on microvascular endothelium via E-selectin/E-selectin ligand interactions under shear flow theoretically promote extravasation and contribute to the development of metastases. However, it is unknown if CTCs from PCa patients interact with E-selectin expressed on endothelium, initiating a route for tumor metastases. Here we report that CTCs derived from PCa patients showed interactions with E-selectin and E-selectin expressing endothelial cells. To examine E-selectin-mediated interactions of PCa cell lines and CTCs derived from metastatic PCa patients, we used fluorescently-labeled anti-prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) monoclonal antibody J591-488 which is internalized following cell-surface binding. We employed a microscale flow device consisting of E-selectin-coated microtubes and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) on parallel-plate flow chamber simulating vascular endothelium. We observed that J591-488 did not significantly alter the rolling behavior in PCa cells at shear stresses below 3 dyn/cm(2). CTCs obtained from 31 PCa patient samples showed that CTCs tether and stably interact with E-selectin and E-selectin expressing HUVECs at physiological shear stress. Interestingly, samples collected during disease progression demonstrated significantly more CTC/E-selectin interactions than samples during times of therapeutic response (p=0.016). Analysis of the expression of sialyl Lewis X (sLe(x)) in patient samples showed that a small subset comprising 1.9-18.8% of CTCs possess high sLe(x) expression. Furthermore, E-selectin-mediated interactions between prostate CTCs and HUVECs were diminished in the presence of anti-E-selectin neutralizing antibody. CTC-Endothelial interactions provide a novel insight into potential adhesive mechanisms of prostate CTCs as a means to initiate metastasis.
    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e85143. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0085143 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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