The partly folded back solution structure arrangement of the 30 SCR domains in human complement receptor type 1 (CR1) permits access to its C3b and C4b ligands.
ABSTRACT Human complement receptor type 1 (CR1, CD35) is a type I membrane-bound glycoprotein that belongs to the regulators of complement activity (RCA) family. The extra-cellular component of CR1 is comprised of 30 short complement regulator (SCR) domains, whereas complement receptor type 2 (CR2) has 15 SCR domains and factor H (FH) has 20 SCR domains. The domain arrangement of a soluble form of CR1 (sCR1) was studied by X-ray scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation. The radius of gyration R(G) of sCR1 of 13.4(+/-1.1) nm is not much greater than those for CR2 and FH, and its R(G)/R(0) anisotropy ratio is 3.76, compared to ratios of 3.67 for FH and 4.1 for CR2. Unlike CR2, but similar to FH, two cross-sectional R(G) ranges were identified that gave R(XS) values of 4.7(+/-0.2) nm and 1.2(+/-0.7) nm, respectively, showing that the SCR domains adopt a range of conformations including folded-back ones. The distance distribution function P(r) showed that the most commonly occurring distance in sCR1 is at 11.5 nm. Its maximum length of 55 nm is less than double those for CR2 or FH, even though sCR1 has twice the number of SCR domains compared to CR2 Sedimentation equilibrium experiments gave a mean molecular weight of 235 kDa for sCR1. This is consistent with the value of 245 kDa calculated from its composition including 14 N-linked oligosaccharide sites, and confirmed that sCR1 is a monomer in solution. Sedimentation velocity experiments gave a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8 S. From this, the frictional ratio (f/f(0)) of sCR1 was calculated to be 2.29, which is greater than those of 1.96 for CR2 and 1.77 for FH. The constrained scattering modelling of the sCR1 solution structure starting from homologous SCR domain structures generated 5000 trial conformationally randomised models, 43 of which gave good scattering fits to show that sCR1 has a partly folded-back structure. We conclude that the inter-SCR linkers show structural features in common with those in FH, but differ from those in CR2, and the SCR arrangement in CR1 will permit C3b or C4b to access all three ligand sites.
Article: Lack of evidence from studies of soluble protein fragments that Knops blood group polymorphisms in complement receptor-type 1 are driven by malaria.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Complement receptor-type 1 (CR1, CD35) is the immune-adherence receptor, a complement regulator, and an erythroid receptor for Plasmodium falciparum during merozoite invasion and subsequent rosette formation involving parasitized and non-infected erythrocytes. The non-uniform geographical distribution of Knops blood group CR1 alleles Sl1/2 and McC(a/b) may result from selective pressures exerted by differential exposure to infectious hazards. Here, four variant short recombinant versions of CR1 were produced and analyzed, focusing on complement control protein modules (CCPs) 15-25 of its ectodomain. These eleven modules encompass a region (CCPs 15-17) key to rosetting, opsonin recognition and complement regulation, as well as the Knops blood group polymorphisms in CCPs 24-25. All four CR1 15-25 variants were monomeric and had similar axial ratios. Modules 21 and 22, despite their double-length inter-modular linker, did not lie side-by-side so as to stabilize a bent-back architecture that would facilitate cooperation between key functional modules and Knops blood group antigens. Indeed, the four CR1 15-25 variants had virtually indistinguishable affinities for immobilized complement fragments C3b (K(D) = 0.8-1.1 µM) and C4b (K(D) = 5.0-5.3 µM). They were all equally good co-factors for factor I-catalysed cleavage of C3b and C4b, and they bound equally within a narrow affinity range, to immobilized C1q. No differences between the variants were observed in assays for inhibition of erythrocyte invasion by P. falciparum or for rosette disruption. Neither differences in complement-regulatory functionality, nor interactions with P. falciparum proteins tested here, appear to have driven the non-uniform geographic distribution of these alleles.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e34820. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Estimation of interdomain flexibility of N-terminus of factor H using residual dipolar couplings.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Characterization of segmental flexibility is needed to understand the biological mechanisms of the very large category of functionally diverse proteins, exemplified by the regulators of complement activation, that consist of numerous compact modules or domains linked by short, potentially flexible, sequences of amino acid residues. The use of NMR-derived residual dipolar couplings (RDCs), in magnetically aligned media, to evaluate interdomain motion is established but only for two-domain proteins. We focused on the three N-terminal domains (called CCPs or SCRs) of the important complement regulator, human factor H (i.e., FH1-3). These domains cooperate to facilitate cleavage of the key complement activation-specific protein fragment, C3b, forming iC3b that no longer participates in the complement cascade. We refined a three-dimensional solution structure of recombinant FH1-3 based on nuclear Overhauser effects and RDCs. We then employed a rudimentary series of RDC data sets, collected in media containing magnetically aligned bicelles (disklike particles formed from phospholipids) under three different conditions, to estimate interdomain motions. This circumvents a requirement of previous approaches for technically difficult collection of five independent RDC data sets. More than 80% of conformers of this predominantly extended three-domain molecule exhibit flexions of <40°. Such segmental flexibility (together with the local dynamics of the hypervariable loop within domain 3) could facilitate recognition of C3b via initial anchoring and eventual reorganization of modules to the conformation captured in the previously solved crystal structure of a C3b:FH1-4 complex.Biochemistry 07/2011; 50(38):8138-49. · 3.42 Impact Factor
Article: Deciphering Complement Receptor Type 1 Interactions with Recognition Proteins of the Lectin Complement Pathway.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Complement receptor type 1 (CR1) is a membrane receptor expressed on a wide range of cells. It is involved in immune complex clearance, phagocytosis, and complement regulation. Its ectodomain is composed of 30 complement control protein (CCP) modules, organized into four long homologous repeats (A-D). In addition to its main ligands C3b and C4b, CR1 was reported to interact with C1q and mannan-binding lectin (MBL) likely through its C-terminal region (CCP22-30). To decipher the interaction of human CR1 with the recognition proteins of the lectin complement pathway, a recombinant fragment encompassing CCP22-30 was expressed in eukaryotic cells, and its interaction with human MBL and ficolins was investigated using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. MBL and L-ficolin were shown to interact with immobilized soluble CR1 and CR1 CCP22-30 with apparent dissociation constants in the nanomolar range, indicative of high affinity. The binding site for CR1 was located at or near the MBL-associated serine protease (MASP) binding site in the collagen stalks of MBL and L-ficolin, as shown by competition experiments with MASP-3. Accordingly, the mutation of an MBL conserved lysine residue essential for MASP binding (K55) abolished binding to soluble CR1 and CCP22-30. The CR1 binding site for MBL/ficolins was mapped to CCP24-25 of long homologous repeat D using deletion mutants. In conclusion, we show that ficolins are new CR1 ligands and propose that MBL/L-ficolin binding involves major ionic interactions between conserved lysine residues of their collagen stalks and surface exposed acidic residues located in CR1 CCP24 and/or CCP25.The Journal of Immunology 03/2013; · 5.79 Impact Factor