Adequacy and pattern of blood donations in north-eastern Nigeria: the implications for blood safety.
ABSTRACT In a retrospective analysis, the quantities, patterns and adequacy of blood donations made, between 1984 and 2006, at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital in north-eastern Nigeria were explored and related to blood safety in the study area. The types of blood donor were reviewed and the annual increments in the number of donations made were estimated and compared with the annual increments in the numbers of in-patients managed at the study hospital. The mean annual increment in the number of blood donations (4%) fell well below the mean annual increment in in-patient numbers (11%). The blood donations received at the hospital fell into four types: voluntary, family-replacement, commercial and pre-deposit autologous donations. Over the study period, the percentage of donations falling into the voluntary and family-replacement categories fell from 31% to 5% and from 49% to 23%, respectively. These falls were matched by increases in the percentages of donations categorised as commercial and autologous, which rose from 20% to 63%, and from 1% to 9%, respectively. By the end of the study period, the quantity of blood being donated at the hospital was grossly inadequate and predominantly derived from family and commercial donors, who were found to be generally inferior, in terms of blood safety, to voluntary donors. There is an urgent need to rectify this situation by setting up a functional and national blood-transfusion service in Nigeria.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Collections and transfusions of blood in the United States in 1994 were measured and compared with those in 1992.STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS:Completed survey questionnaires were returned by all 147 regional blood centers, 1340 American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) member hospitals, and 523 non-AABB hospitals. Statistical tests verified the representativeness of the sample.RESULTS:The United States domestic blood supply in 1994 (13,340,000 units) was 3.3 percent less than in 1992. It included allogeneic blood (11,773,000 units), autologous blood (1,013,000 units), and directed donations (334,000 units). Of these, 432,000 units were rejected on testing, 11,107,000 units were transfused to 3,398,000 patients, and 1,801,000 units were discarded or unaccounted for. Platelet transfusions amounted to 7,866,000 units. Compared with the totals for 1992, transfusions of single-donor platelets (714,000 packs or 4,284,000 units) increased by 17.6 percent, while transfusions of platelet concentrates (3,582,000 units) fell by 23.6 percent. Fresh-frozen plasma transfusions (2,621,000 units) increased by 16.2 percent over the number for 1992.CONCLUSIONS:The US blood collection rate in 1994 was 74.6 units per 1000 population of donor age, the lowest recorded level since 1971. The US RBC transfusion rate in 1994 was 42.8 units per 1000 population, about the same as 1979. Transfusions of single-donor platelets, 16.5 units per 1000 population, exceeded transfusions of platelet concentrate (13.8/1000) for the first time. Plasma transfusions were 10.1 units per 1000 population. The US blood supply in 1994 was adequate to meet patient demands.Transfusion 06/1998; 38(7):625 - 636. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Blood transfusion services were poorly developed until the mid 1980s in most of sub-Saharan Africa, and were unable to provide adequate supplies of blood with acceptable safety. The pandemic of HIV was recognized seroepidemiologically from 1985 onwards. Blood transfusion was contributing from 10 to 15% to transmission in Africa. Groups at highest risk are children with malaria and anaemia, women with pregnancy-related haemorrhage or anaemia, victims of trauma and subjects with sickle-cell disease. Haemophiliacs are not a major risk group in comparison. Blood transfusion services have undoubtedly benefitted from the international, national and regional responses to the AIDS epidemic. Organizational structures have been established. There have been concerted moves to recruit voluntary unremunerated blood donors, selected from population groups with low seroprevalence. Serological screening for HIV, hepatitis viruses and syphilis has been introduced or strengthened. Standards for blood group serology, blood storage and handling have been improved. Guidelines for the appropriate use of blood have been formulated and adopted. There have been many training and retraining programmes. Much remains to be completed, however, using national and international resources, before the blood supply reaches acceptable standards of safety and is adequate in remote as well as in central areas of Africa.Transfusion Science 07/1997; 18(2):167-79.
- Human Pathlogy 03/1986; 17(2):108-10. · 2.84 Impact Factor