Adequacy and pattern of blood donations in North-eastern Nigeria: the implications for blood safety

Department of Paediatrics, University of Maiduguri, Maidugari, Borno, Nigeria
Pathogens and Global Health (Impact Factor: 1.66). 01/2008; 101(8):725-31. DOI: 10.1179/136485907X241442
Source: PubMed


In a retrospective analysis, the quantities, patterns and adequacy of blood donations made, between 1984 and 2006, at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital in north-eastern Nigeria were explored and related to blood safety in the study area. The types of blood donor were reviewed and the annual increments in the number of donations made were estimated and compared with the annual increments in the numbers of in-patients managed at the study hospital. The mean annual increment in the number of blood donations (4%) fell well below the mean annual increment in in-patient numbers (11%). The blood donations received at the hospital fell into four types: voluntary, family-replacement, commercial and pre-deposit autologous donations. Over the study period, the percentage of donations falling into the voluntary and family-replacement categories fell from 31% to 5% and from 49% to 23%, respectively. These falls were matched by increases in the percentages of donations categorised as commercial and autologous, which rose from 20% to 63%, and from 1% to 9%, respectively. By the end of the study period, the quantity of blood being donated at the hospital was grossly inadequate and predominantly derived from family and commercial donors, who were found to be generally inferior, in terms of blood safety, to voluntary donors. There is an urgent need to rectify this situation by setting up a functional and national blood-transfusion service in Nigeria.

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Available from: Sagir Ahmed, Jan 23, 2015
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    • "Insufficient supply of blood and blood components due to inefficient blood banking services even at tertiary health care levels is a major challenge in our blood banks [60, 61]. Also, the financial burden of the therapy to the patient, the family, and the society at large is quite heavy as most of the blood supply is commercially driven or at best family replacement donations [60, 61]. Procurement of blood from commercial vendors further increases the risk of transfusion acquired infections and cost of transfusion services which has to be borne by the patient and caregivers. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. Hypertransfusion refers to chronic blood transfusion therapy aimed at ameliorating disease complications in various haemopathies particularly the haemoglobinopathies. In sickle cell disease, hypertransfusion is aimed at maintaining patient's haemoglobin level at 10 to 11 g/dL using haemoglobin AA blood and its resultant dilutional effect on sickle haemoglobin is sustained by intermittent long-term transfusions. Aim and Objective. This paper highlights hypertransfusion and its privileged position as a secondary measure in prevention and treatment of sickle cell disease, especially in the Nigerian context. Materials and Methods. Relevant literatures were searched on PubMed, Google Scholar and standard texts in haematology and transfusion medicine. Keywords used in the search are hypertransfusion, sickle cell disease, chronic transfusion, and Nigeria. Literatures gathered were reviewed, summarized, and presented in this paper. Result. Immense clinical benefit is associated with hypertransfusion therapy including prevention of stroke and amelioration of severe sickle cell disease especially in transplant ineligible patients. Careful patient selections, appropriate blood component, and prevention of transfusion hazards as well as oversight function of an experienced haematologist are pertinent to a successful hypertransfusion therapy. Conclusion. Improved knowledge of the benefits and practice of hypertransfusion will effectively translate into improved health status even among Nigerian sickle cell disease patients.
    Advances in Hematology 08/2014; 2014:923593. DOI:10.1155/2014/923593
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    • "In developing countries like Nigeria, there is a dependency on family replacement and remunerated donors [3, 10–12]. Voluntary blood donation accounts for less than 5% of blood procured in most of our blood banks [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. Adequate and safe blood supply has remained a challenge in developing countries like ours. There is a high dependency on family replacement and remunerated blood donors in our environment which carries an attendant increased risk of transfusion transmissible infection. Objectives. The objectives of this study were to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of voluntary blood donation among healthcare workers (nonphysicians) and to identify and recruit potential voluntary blood donors. Methodology. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City. A total of 163 staffs were recruited. Pretest questionnaires were used to assess their knowledge, attitude, and practice of voluntary blood donation. Statistical Analysis. The responses were collated and analyzed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 16. The association between blood donation practice and gender of respondents, category of staff, and level of education was tested using Chi-square and Fisher's tests where appropriate. P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. The median age of the respondents was 32 years (18-56) with females accounting for 55.6% (90). A total of 74.8% (122) attained tertiary education, and 55.8% (91) of respondents were senior staffs. The majority has good knowledge and positive attitude towards donation; however, only 22.1% (36) have donated blood with 41.7% (15) of these being voluntary. Male workers were more likely to donate (P < 0.05). There is no significant association between blood donation and level of education. Conclusion. There is a strong disparity between the knowledge, attitude, and practice of voluntary donation amongst healthcare workers.
    10/2013; 2013:797830. DOI:10.1155/2013/797830
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    • "This decision was reinforced by the HIV epidemic. It is now recommended in most countries including Nigeria that surrogate testing including syphilis should be done to prevent those at risk from donating blood [5]. Studies to investigate the risk of transfusion-transmissible syphilis among blood donors in Ghana have indicated antibody seroprevalence rate of 13.5% for Treponema palladium [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: As a resource, allogenic blood has never been more in demand than it is today. Escalating elective surgery, perennial shortages arising from a fall in supply, lack of a functional national blood transfusion service, policies, appropriate infrastructure, trained personnel and financial resources to support the running of a voluntary non-remunerated donor transfusion service, old and emerging threat of transfusion–transmissible infections (TTIs) have all conspired to ensure that allogenic blood remains very much a vital but limited asset to healthcare delivery particularly in Nigeria. This is further aggravated by the predominance of family replacement and commercially remunerated blood donors rather than regular benevolent non-remunerated donors who give blood out of altruism. The demand for blood transfusion is high in Nigeria because of the high prevalence of anemia especially due to malaria, malnutrition and pregnancy-related complications. All stake holders of transfusion in Nigeria have a significant challenge to apply best available evidenced-based medical practices in the world class management of this precious product by using blood more appropriately. They need to always keep in mind that the first and foremost strategy to avoiding the transfusion of allogenic blood is their thorough understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in anemia and coagulopathy. Their thoughtful adherence to evidenced-based good practices can potentially reduce the * All correspondence to: Dr Erhabor Osaro, Blood Sciences,
    Blood Transfusions: Procedures, Risks and Role in Disease Treatment., 1st edited by Berhardt LV, 03/2013: chapter Provision of safe blood transfusion services in a low income setting in West Africa. Case study of Nigeria.: pages 1-58.; Nova Science Publishers, New York, USA.., ISBN: ISBN: 978-1-62257-835-1.
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