Skin stem and progenitor cells: using regeneration as a tissue-engineering strategy.
ABSTRACT Cell plasticity and mesenchymal-epithelial interactions are regarded as a hallmark of embryonic development and are not believed to occur extensively in the adult. Recently, adult mesenchymal stem cells were reported to differentiate in culture into a variety of mature cell types, including epithelial cells. Progress in stem and progenitor cell biology and recognition of the unique properties of such cells may enable intelligent bioengineering design of replacement skin which allows regeneration to occur in vivo. Ideally, a scaffold-free environment which stimulates skin stem cells in situ to initiate cell signals that result in regeneration rather than scar formation is required. Various skin progenitor cell types are considered along with the signalling cascades that they affect. We also discuss a mammalian model of scar-free regeneration. Many of these mechanisms, if fully understood, could be harnessed after injury to perfectly restore the skin.
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ABSTRACT: Reprogramming of somatic cells into inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provides an alternative to using embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human hair follicles (hHF-MSCs) are easily accessible, reproducible by direct plucking of human hairs. Whether these hHF-MSCs can be reprogrammed has not been previously reported. Here we report the generation of iPSCs from hHF-MSCs obtained by plucking several hairs. hHF-MSCs were isolated from hair follicle tissues and their mesenchymal nature confirmed by detecting cell surface antigens and multilineage differentiation potential towards adipocytes and osteoblasts. They were then reprogrammed into iPSCs by lentiviral transduction with Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4. hHF-MSC-derived iPSCs appeared indistinguishable from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in colony morphology, expression of alkaline phosphotase, and expression of specific hESCs surface markers, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, Tra-1-60, Tra-1-81, Nanog, Oct4, E-Cadherin and endogenous pluripotent genes. When injected into immunocompromised mice, hHF-MSC-derived iPSCs formed teratomas containing representatives of all three germ layers. This is the first study to report reprogramming of hHF-MSCs into iPSCs.Stem cell reviews 12/2012; 9(4). DOI:10.1007/s12015-012-9420-5 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vitiligo is a common, incurable skin disease with a prevalence of about 1%. Although many vitiligo therapies are available in clinics, there is almost no one method that causes significant improvement in all vitiligo patients. Some have hypothesized that melanocyte dysfunction or deficiency underlies the loss of skin pigmentation observed in vitiligo. The autoimmune-mediated apoptosis of melanocytes might be an important part of the etiology of vitiligo, which prevents the formation of melanocytes in the skin.Here we propose a novel hypothesis for vitiligo treatment using in situ melanocyte regeneration induced by melanocyte-lineage-specific genes (MLSGs). This may serve as an intelligent bioengineering prototype.The hypothesis is based on the fact that MLSGs regulate melanocyte differentiation through epigenetic reprogramming, which includes microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), paired box 3 (PAX3), and Notch signaling. MITF directs the terminal differentiation of melanocytes, and PAX3 helps to establish the properties of the melanocyte stem cells. Notch signaling promotes adult stem cell proliferation and self-renewal. This process could be mimicked by Notch intracellular domain (NICD). MLSGs could also stimulate anti-apoptotic gene expression. Recent improvements in relevant biotechniques allow the transdermal delivery of MLSG proteins into the patient, where they enter cells through protein transduction.This process may promote melanocyte regeneration in situ with little impact on the hair follicular cycle or on carcinogenesis. This simple and efficient treatment may have significant impact on the treatment of vitiligo patients.Medical Hypotheses 09/2012; 79(6). DOI:10.1016/j.mehy.2012.08.030 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present work aims to assess the antibacterial potential of phenolic extracts, recovered from plants obtained on the North East of Portugal, and of their phenolic compounds (ellagic, caffeic, and gallic acids, quercetin, kaempferol, and rutin), against bacteria commonly found on skin infections. The disk diffusion and the susceptibility assays were used to identify the most active extracts and phenolic compounds. The effect of selected phenolic compounds on animal cells was assessed by determination of cellular metabolic activity. Gallic acid had a higher activity, against gram-positive (S. epidermidis and S. aureus) and gram-negative bacteria (K. pneumoniae) at lower concentrations, than the other compounds. The caffeic acid, also, showed good antibacterial activity against the 3 bacteria used. The gallic acid was effective against the 3 bacteria without causing harm to the animal cells. Gallic and caffeic acid showed a promising applicability as antibacterial agents for the treatment of infected wounds.01/2014; 2014:814590. DOI:10.1155/2014/814590