Article

Executive functioning among Finnish adolescents with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder

University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 6.35). 01/2008; 46(12):1594-604. DOI: 10.1097/chi.0b013e3181575014
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The present study examined cognitive functioning in a population sample of adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986.
The sample consisted of 457 adolescents ages 16 to 18 who were assessed using a battery of cognitive tasks. Performance according to diagnostic group (control, behavior disorder, and ADHD) and sex was compared. Then, the effect of executive function deficit (EFD) was assessed by diagnostic group status on behavioral and cognitive measures.
When compared to non-ADHD groups, adolescents with ADHD exhibited deficits on almost all of the cognitive measures. The behavior disorder group obtained scores that were generally intermediate between the ADHD and control groups, but exhibited deficits in intelligence and executive function similar to the ADHD group. Approximately half the ADHD sample had EFD; however, the type and presence of EFDs were not differentially related to cognitive performance as a function of diagnosis.
These findings indicate that EFDs are more frequent in ADHD than control or behavior disorder groups. EFDs are a general risk factor for poor cognitive functioning across multiple domains, irrespective of diagnostic status.

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    • "However, co-morbid ODD was more frequent in subjects with deficits. Most earlier work has concluded that neurocognitive impairments are independent of co-morbid oppositional and aggressive symptoms, with greater ADHD symptom severity in co-morbid cases accounting for any differences [52]–[58]. This may apply here equally. "
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    • "c o m / l o c a t e / s c h r e s population (Jennings et al., 2007; Zhou et al., 2011). Studies of attention network measures were also extensively conducted in clinical populations, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (Loo et al., 2007; Adolfsdottir et al., 2008), borderline personality disorder (Posner et al., 2002; Rogosch and Cicchetti, 2005), deafness (Dye et al., 2007), depression (Murphy and Alexopoulos, 2006), dyslexia (Bednarek et al., 2004), and 22q11 deletion syndrome (Sobin et al., 2004; Bish et al., 2005). "
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    • "Finally, application of component or factor scores to define EFD reduced the number of impaired cases further, but essentially the different methods yielded similar results. Measurement of agreement suggests that although there is substantial overlap between methods as indicated by percentages of EFD found, the approaches by Biederman et al. (2004), Loo et al. (2007), or our age-adjusted scores do not identify all of the same children as impaired; thus, some caution may be warranted in trying to generalize across studies. "
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