Regulatory interaction of HNF1-alpha to microRNA-194 gene during intestinal epithelial cell differentiation.
ABSTRACT Maintenance of intestinal epithelium is based on well-balanced molecular mechanisms that confer the stable and continuous supply of specialized epithelial cell lineages from multipotent progenitors. Lineage commitment decisions in intestinal epithelium system involve multiple regulatory systems that interplay each other to establish the cellular identities. Here, we demonstrate that the microRNA system could be involved in intestinal epithelial cell differentiation and that microRNA-194 (miR194) is highly induced during this process and controlled by a transcription factor, HNF-alpha, that is well known to regulate gene expression in intestinal epithelial cells. Thus, the 5' conserved genomic region of miR-1942 gene, the inducible class of miR-194 parental gene, contains a binding motif for HNF1-alpha. This consensus region is required for the transcription of miR-1942 and active in intestinal epithelial cell line, Caco-2, in-vivo. Our observations indicate that microRNA genes could be targets of lineage specific transcription factors and that microRNAs are regulated in intestinal epithelial cells in a tissue specific manner. Given that role of microRNA in fine tuning of gene expression patterns, our results suggest that HNF1-alpha regulates the gene expression program by not only direct activation of genes but also modulation through induction of microRNAs such as miR-194, in intestinal epithelial cells. This represents a novel molecular machinery that might specify the fates of intestinal epithelial cell lineages during their differentiation.
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ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belong to a class of noncoding, regulatory RNAs that is involved in oncogenesis and shows remarkable tissue specificity. Their potential for tumor classification suggests they may be used in identifying the tissue in which cancers of unknown primary origin arose, a major clinical problem. We measured miRNA expression levels in 400 paraffin-embedded and fresh-frozen samples from 22 different tumor tissues and metastases. We used miRNA microarray data of 253 samples to construct a transparent classifier based on 48 miRNAs. Two-thirds of samples were classified with high confidence, with accuracy >90%. In an independent blinded test-set of 83 samples, overall high-confidence accuracy reached 89%. Classification accuracy reached 100% for most tissue classes, including 131 metastatic samples. We further validated the utility of the miRNA biomarkers by quantitative RT-PCR using 65 additional blinded test samples. Our findings demonstrate the effectiveness of miRNAs as biomarkers for tracing the tissue of origin of cancers of unknown primary origin.Nature Biotechnology 04/2008; 26(4):462-9. DOI:10.1038/nbt1392 · 39.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Molecular classifications defining new tumor subtypes have been recently refined with genetic and transcriptomic analyses of benign and malignant hepatocellular tumors. Here, we performed microRNA (miRNA) profiling in two series of fully annotated liver tumors to uncover associations between oncogene/tumor suppressor mutations and clinical and pathological features. Expression levels of 250 miRNAs in 46 benign and malignant hepatocellular tumors were compared to those of 4 normal liver samples with quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. miRNAs associated with genetic and clinical characteristics were validated in a second series of 43 liver tumor samples and 16 nontumor samples. miRNA profiling unsupervised analysis classified samples in unique clusters characterized by histological features (tumor/nontumor, P < 0.001; benign/malignant tumors, P < 0.01; inflammatory adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia, P < 0.01), clinical characteristics [hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, P < 0.001; alcohol consumption, P < 0.05], and oncogene/tumor suppressor gene mutations [beta-catenin, P < 0.01; hepatocyte nuclear factor 1alpha (HNF1alpha), P < 0.01]. Our study identified and validated miR-224 overexpression in all tumors and miR-200c, miR-200, miR-21, miR-224, miR-10b, and miR-222 specific deregulation in benign or malignant tumors. Moreover, miR-96 was overexpressed in HBV tumors, and miR-126* was down-regulated in alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma. Down-regulations of miR-107 and miR-375 were specifically associated with HNF1alpha and beta-catenin gene mutations, respectively. miR-375 expression was highly correlated to that of beta-catenin-targeted genes as miR-107 expression was correlated to that of HNF1alpha in a small interfering RNA cell line model. Thus, this strongly suggests that beta-catenin and HNF1alpha could regulate miR-375 and miR-107 expression levels, respectively. CONCLUSION: Hepatocellular tumors may have a distinct miRNA expression fingerprint according to malignancy, risk factors, and oncogene/tumor suppressor gene alterations. Dissecting these relationships provides a new hypothesis to understand the functional impact of miRNA deregulation in liver tumorigenesis and the promising use of miRNAs as diagnostic markers.Hepatology 06/2008; 47(6):1955-63. DOI:10.1002/hep.22256 · 11.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the prognostic significance of CEBPA mutations in the context of established molecular markers in cytogenetically normal (CN) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and gain biologic insights into leukemogenesis of the CN-AML molecular high-risk subset (FLT3 internal tandem duplication [ITD] positive and/or NPM1 wild type) that has a significantly higher incidence of CEBPA mutations than the molecular low-risk subset (FLT3-ITD negative and NPM1 mutated). One hundred seventy-five adults age less than 60 years with untreated primary CN-AML were screened before treatment for CEBPA, FLT3, MLL, WT1, and NPM1 mutations and BAALC and ERG expression levels. Gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles were obtained for the CN-AML molecular high-risk patients. CEBPA mutations predicted better event-free (P = .007), disease-free (P = .014), and overall survival (P < .001) independently of other molecular and clinical prognosticators. Among patients with CEBPA mutations, 91% were in the CN-AML molecular high-risk group. Within this group, CEBPA mutations predicted better event-free (P < .001), disease-free (P = .004), and overall survival (P = .009) independently of other molecular and clinical characteristics and were associated with unique gene and miRNA expression profiles. The major features of these profiles were upregulation of genes (eg, GATA1, ZFPM1, EPOR, and GFI1B) and miRNAs (ie, the miR-181 family) involved in erythroid differentiation and downregulation of homeobox genes. Pretreatment testing for CEBPA mutations identifies CN-AML patients with different outcomes, particularly in the molecular high-risk group, thus improving molecular risk-based classification of this large cytogenetic subset of AML. The gene and miRNA expression profiling provided insights into leukemogenesis of the CN-AML molecular high-risk group, indicating that CEBPA mutations are associated with partial erythroid differentiation.Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2008; 26(31):5078-87. DOI:10.1200/JCO.2008.17.5554 · 17.88 Impact Factor