IL-9 is associated with an impaired Th1 immune response in patients with tuberculosis.
ABSTRACT Although a defective Th1 response has been demonstrated in patients infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the mechanisms leading to this defect are not well understood. To study the immune response to Mtb infection, we stimulated PBMC from individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) or patients with tuberculosis (TB) with the Mtb specific antigen early secretory antigenic target-6 (ESAT-6). mRNAs for a panel of cytokines were measured using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). PBMC from TB patients exhibited low levels of IFN-gamma, IL-12alpha, IL-12beta, and IL-23 mRNA but high levels of IL-9 mRNA. Sera from TB patients blocked the differentiation and function of dendritic cells from TST negative (TST-) donors. Exogenous IL-9 reduced IFN-gamma mRNA expression in PBMC from LTBI by 30% (n=4) and neutralization of IL-9 restored the IFN-gamma mRNA expression in PBMC from TB patients by 66% (n=8). Thus, increased expression of IL-9 may contribute to the development of TB.
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ABSTRACT: In the advanced stages of mycobacterial infections, host immune systems tend to change from a Th1-type to Th2-type immune response, resulting in the abrogation of Th1 cell- and macrophage-mediated antimicrobial host protective immunity. Notably, this type of immune conversion is occasionally associated with the generation of certain types of suppressor macrophage populations. During the course of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) infections, the generation of macrophages which possess strong suppressor activity against host T- and B-cell functions is frequently encountered. This paper describes the immunological properties of M1- and M2-type macrophages generated in tumor-bearing animals and those generated in hosts with certain microbial infections. In addition, this paper highlights the immunological and molecular biological characteristics of suppressor macrophages generated in hosts with mycobacterial infections, especially MAC infection.Clinical and Developmental Immunology 05/2012; 2012:635451. DOI:10.1155/2012/635451 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Trachoma is the leading preventable cause of global blindness. A balanced Th1/Th2/Th3 immune response is critical for resolving Chlamydia trachomatis infection, the primary cause of trachoma. Despite control programs that include mass antibiotic treatment, reinfection and recurrence of trachoma are common after treatment cessation. Furthermore, a subset of infected individuals develop inflammation and are at greater risk for developing the severe sequela of trachoma known as trachomatous trichiasis (TT). While there are a number of environmental and behavioral risk factors for trachoma, genetic factors that influence inflammation and TT risk remain ill defined. We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 36 candidate inflammatory genes and interactions among these SNPs that likely play a role in the overall risk for TT. We conducted a case control study of 538 individuals of Tharu ethnicity residing in an endemic region of Nepal. Trachoma was graded according to World Health Organization guidelines. A linear array was used to genotype 51 biallelic SNPs in the 36 genes. Analyses were performed using logic regression modeling, which controls for multiple comparisons. We present, to our knowledge, the first significant association of TNFA (-308GA), LTA (252A), VCAM1 (-1594TC), and IL9 (T113M) polymorphisms, synergistic SNPs and risk of TT. TT risk decreased 5 times [odds ratio = 0.2 (95% confidence interval 0.11.-0.33), p = 0.001] with the combination of TNFA (-308A), LTA (252A), VCAM1 (-1594C), SCYA 11 (23T) minor allele, and the combination of TNFA (-308A), IL9 (113M), IL1B (5'UTR-T), and VCAM1 (-1594C). However, TT risk increased 13.5 times [odds ratio = 13.5 (95% confidence interval 3.3-22), p = 0.001] with the combination of TNFA (-308G), VDR (intron G), IL4R (50V), and ICAM1 (56M) minor allele. Evaluating genetic risk factors for trachoma will advance our understanding of disease pathogenesis, and should be considered in the context of designing global control programs.PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(10):e3600. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0003600 · 3.53 Impact Factor