Lung function in subjects exposed to crude oil spill into sea water. Mar Pollut Bull

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2925, Riyadh 11461, Saudi Arabia.
Marine Pollution Bulletin (Impact Factor: 2.79). 02/2008; 56(1):88-94. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2007.09.039
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A Greek oil-tanker ran aground, resulting in a huge oil spill along the costal areas of Karachi, Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to assess the lung function and follow up change after one year in subjects exposed to crude oil spill in sea water. It was a cross sectional study with follow up in 20 apparently healthy, non-smoking, male workers, who were exposed to a crude oil spill environment during oil cleaning operation. The exposed group was matched with 31 apparently healthy male control subjects. Pulmonary function test was performed using an electronic Spirometer. Subjects exposed to polluted air have significant reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV(1)), forced expiratory flow (FEF(25-75%)) and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) compared to their matched controls. This impairment was reversible and lung functions parameters were improved when the subjects were withdrawn from the polluted air environment.

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Available from: Azeem Muhammad Abdul, Aug 18, 2015
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    • "In recent decades, industrial development and anthropogenic activities including maritime transport and port activities, particularly those associated with the petroleum industry, have raised the levels of petrochemical products and derivatives discharged into aquatic environments.[1] However, in the context of these activities, the single most serious source of oil pollution at sea are spill accidents which cause severe damage to the marine biota.[2] [3] [4] [5] The best-known examples of major marine spills of crude oil include the Bohai Bay oil spill in "
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    ABSTRACT: Biomarkers have been tested in order to address the most suitable battery for determining adverse effects of crude oil spills on marine invertebrates. An oil spill with increasing degrees of severity was simulated by mixing crude oil (0%, 0.5%, 2%, 8%, 16%, 32%) with sediment. Carcinus maenas and Ruditapes philippinarum were exposed to this sediment for seven days with the aim of comparing their applicability in biomonitoring studies. Four biomarkers including ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were analysed in gill and digestive gland tissues of clams; and in gill and hepato-pancreas tissues of crabs. EROD, GST and GPx enzymatic activities were significantly induced in gill and digestive gland tissues of clams when increasing oil concentrations (p<.01). In crabs all the biomarkers were significantly activated in gill tissues, whereas EROD and LPO activities were induced only in hepato-pancreas tissues (p<.01). Gill and digestive gland in clams and gill in crabs were found to be the most reliable tissues for analysis of biomarkers. The biomarkers selected are thus considered suitable for assessing toxicity of sediments after a marine crude oil spill accident. Both species were found to be sensitive and suitable for biomonitoring purposes.
    Chemistry and Ecology 07/2014; DOI:10.1080/02757540.2014.932780 · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    • "The authors recommended performing follow-up studies after oil spills taking samples every 3 months for 3–5 years, noting respiratory disorders and any changes in the skin. Finally, Meo et al. (2008) assessed, by means of spirometry, lung function and followed up the progression after one year in 20 subjects exposed to this oil spill and 31 controls. Subjects exposed to polluted air had significant reductions in lung function compared with their matched controls (P ranging from 0.001 to 0.02 for the different lung function parameters). "
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    ABSTRACT: Harmful effects of oil spills on diverse flora and fauna species have been extensively studied. Nevertheless, only a few studies have been compiled in the literature dealing with the repercussions of oil exposure on human health; most of them have focused on acute effects and psychological symptoms. The objective of this work was to gather all these studies and to analyze the possible consequences of this kind of complex exposure in the different aspects of human health. Studies found on this topic were related to the disasters of the Exxon Valdez, Braer, Sea Empress, Nakhodka, Erika, Prestige and Tasman Spirit oil tankers. The majority of them were cross-sectional; many did not include control groups. Acute effects were evaluated taking into account vegetative-nervous symptoms, skin and mucous irritations, and also psychological effects. Genotoxic damage and endocrine alterations were assessed only in individuals exposed to oil from Prestige. The results of the reviewed articles clearly support the need for biomonitoring human populations exposed to spilled oils, especially those individuals involved in the cleanup, in order to evaluate not only the possible immediate consequences for their health but also the medium- and long-term effects, and the effectiveness of the protective devices used.
    Journal of Applied Toxicology 05/2010; 30(4):291-301. DOI:10.1002/jat.1521 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our objective is to review and summarize the previous studies on the health effects of exposure to oil spills in order to make suggestions for mid- and long-term study plans regarding the health effects of the Hebei Spirit oil spill occurred in Korea. We searched PubMed to systemically retrieve reports on the human health effects related to oil spill accidents. The papers' reference lists and reviews on the topic were searched as well. We found 24 articles that examined seven oil spill accidents worldwide over the period from 1989 to August 2008, including the Exxon Valdes, Braer, Sea Empress, Erika, Nakhodka, Prestige and Tasman Spirit oil spills. Most of the studies applied cross-sectional and short-term follow-up study designs. The exposure level was measured by assessing the place of residence, using a questionnaire and environmental and personal monitoring. Studies on the acute or immediate health effects mainly focused on the subjective physical symptoms related to clean-up work or residential exposure. Late or mid-term follow-up studies were performed to investigate a range of health effects such as pulmonary function and endocrine, immunologic and genetic toxicity. The economic and social impact of the accidents resulted in the socio-psychological exposure and the psychosocial health effects. Studies of the health effects of exposure to oil spills should consider a range of health outcomes, including the physical and psychological effects, and the studies should be extended for a considerable period of time to study the long-term chronic health effects.
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health 10/2008; 41(5):345-54. DOI:10.3961/jpmph.2008.41.5.345
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