Lung function in subjects exposed to crude oil spill into sea water.
ABSTRACT A Greek oil-tanker ran aground, resulting in a huge oil spill along the costal areas of Karachi, Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to assess the lung function and follow up change after one year in subjects exposed to crude oil spill in sea water. It was a cross sectional study with follow up in 20 apparently healthy, non-smoking, male workers, who were exposed to a crude oil spill environment during oil cleaning operation. The exposed group was matched with 31 apparently healthy male control subjects. Pulmonary function test was performed using an electronic Spirometer. Subjects exposed to polluted air have significant reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV(1)), forced expiratory flow (FEF(25-75%)) and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) compared to their matched controls. This impairment was reversible and lung functions parameters were improved when the subjects were withdrawn from the polluted air environment.
- SourceAvailable from: Gabriela Veronica Aguirre Martinez[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Biomarkers have been tested in order to address the most suitable battery for determining adverse effects of crude oil spills on marine invertebrates. An oil spill with increasing degrees of severity was simulated by mixing crude oil (0%, 0.5%, 2%, 8%, 16%, 32%) with sediment. Carcinus maenas and Ruditapes philippinarum were exposed to this sediment for seven days with the aim of comparing their applicability in biomonitoring studies. Four biomarkers including ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were analysed in gill and digestive gland tissues of clams; and in gill and hepato-pancreas tissues of crabs. EROD, GST and GPx enzymatic activities were significantly induced in gill and digestive gland tissues of clams when increasing oil concentrations (p<.01). In crabs all the biomarkers were significantly activated in gill tissues, whereas EROD and LPO activities were induced only in hepato-pancreas tissues (p<.01). Gill and digestive gland in clams and gill in crabs were found to be the most reliable tissues for analysis of biomarkers. The biomarkers selected are thus considered suitable for assessing toxicity of sediments after a marine crude oil spill accident. Both species were found to be sensitive and suitable for biomonitoring purposes.Chemistry and Ecology 07/2014; · 1.18 Impact Factor
Article: Petrochemicals[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This is a review on literature published in 2008 that covered issues related to the occurrence of petrochemicals in the environment, as well as methods and techniques used for the detection and chemical analysis of petroleum mixtures, together with the toxicity and impacts of various forms of petroleum spills. This review also included literature investigating petrochemicals in water and wastewater and their treatment options including biodegradation, advanced oxidation and modeling.Water Environment Research 10/2009; 81(10):1664-1686. · 1.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The oil spill from the Heibei Spirit in December 2007 contaminated the Yellow Coast of South Korea. We evaluated the respiratory effects of that spill on children who lived along the Yellow Coast. Of 662 children living in the area exposed to the oil spill, 436 (65.9%) were enrolled as subjects. All subjects completed a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. A health examination, including a skin prick test, pulmonary function test, and methacholine bronchial provocation test (MBPT), was administered. The children were assigned to two groups: those who lived close to the oil spill area and those who lived far from the oil spill area. The children who lived close to the oil spill area showed a significantly lower forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), an increased prevalence of 'asthma ever' (based on a questionnaire), and 'airway hyperresponsiveness' (based on the MBPT) than those who lived far from the oil spill area (FEV1; P=0.011, prevalence of 'asthma ever' based on a questionnaire; P=0.005, prevalence of 'airway hyperresponsiveness' based on the MBPT; P=0.001). The onset of wheezing after the oil spill was significantly higher in children who lived close to the oil spill area than in those who lived far from the oil spill area among the 'wheeze ever' group (P=0.002). In a multiple logistic regression analysis, male sex, family history of asthma, and residence near the oil spill area were significant risk factors for asthma (sex [male/female]: odds ratio [OR], 2.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-4.91; family history of asthma [No/Yes]: OR, 3.77; 95% CI, 1.83-7.75; exposure group [low/high]; OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.27-4.65). This study suggests that exposure to an oil spill is a risk factor for asthma in children.Allergy, asthma & immunology research 11/2013; 5(6):365-70. · 3.08 Impact Factor
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Format (Practical Examination / OSPE)
MBBS First Professional Examination (Part-II)
Practical Examination will consists of OSPE having 13 stations related to
Practicals, 11 non observed stations of two marks each, and 02 observed
stations of four marks each.
-PRACTICAL (01 Practical)
Performance and Viva Voce related to Practical
2 minutes at each station.
4 minutes at each station
(5+5)10 + 10 (5+5)
(External + Internal)
-PROCEDURE WRITING of the Practical
-STRUCTURED VIVA VOCE (Related to the Curriculum)
-YEARLY WORK BOOK
-CONTINUOUS INTERNAL ASSESSMENT
15 + 15
(External + Internal)
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LIST OF 2nd YEAR PRACTICALS
Practical of CNS:
1- To perform clinical examination of cranial nerves.
2- To elicit superficial reflexes.
3- To elicit deep reflexes and give their values.
4- Demonstrate the effect of reinforcement phenomenon on knee jerk.
5- To demonstrate pathological reflexes.
6- Estimation of sensory system.
a. Testing of dorsal column lerniniscal system sensations.
7- Examination of sensory system.
a. Testing of sensation of Sipothalmic tract.
8- Clinical examination of the motor system.
9- Assessment of the cerebellar function.
10- To plot field of vision of a subject (Perimetry).
11- To determine the visual acuity of subject.
12- Study of accommodation reflex.
13- To demonstrate light reflex and draw light pathway.
14- Ophthalmoscopic examination of eye.
15- To test one’s own colour vision.
16- To perform hearing tests.
17- Testing the taste sensation.
18- To detect specific gravity of urine.
19- To perform pregnancy test.
20- Temperature recording at rest and immediately after exercise.
21- How to consult a research article?