Microalbuminuria, peripheral artery disease, and cognitive function.
ABSTRACT Kidney disease may be linked to a decline in cognitive activity. We examined the association of microalbuminuria and cognitive function in a general population of older adults in the United States drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 1999-2002. Cognitive function was measured by digit symbol substitution in 2,386 participants 60 years of age and older of whom 448 had microalbuminuria. Covariates included age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, diabetes, and hypertension. Among participants with peripheral artery disease, those with microalbuminuria had a significantly lower cognitive function score compared to those with a normal albumin-to-creatinine ratio. The association between microalbuminuria and cognitive function was weak in those without peripheral artery disease. But in those with peripheral artery disease, the odds of microalbuminuria associated with cognitive function in the lowest and middle tertiles was 6.5 and 3.5, respectively.
Article: Vascular risk factors and cognitive impairment in chronic kidney disease: the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cognitive impairment is common among persons with chronic kidney disease, but the extent to which nontraditional vascular risk factors mediate this association is unclear. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of baseline data collected from adults with chronic kidney disease participating in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study. Cognitive impairment was defined as a Modified Mini-Mental State Exam score>1 SD below the mean score. Among 3591 participants, the mean age was 58.2±11.0 years, and the mean estimated GFR (eGFR) was 43.4±13.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Cognitive impairment was present in 13%. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, prevalent vascular disease (stroke, coronary artery disease, and peripheral arterial disease) and traditional vascular risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and elevated cholesterol), an eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 was associated with a 47% increased odds of cognitive impairment (odds ratio 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.05, 2.05) relative to those with an eGFR 45 to 59 ml/min per 1.73 m2. This association was attenuated and no longer significant after adjustment for hemoglobin concentration. While other nontraditional vascular risk factors including C-reactive protein, homocysteine, serum albumin, and albuminuria were correlated with cognitive impairment in unadjusted analyses, they were not significantly associated with cognitive impairment after adjustment for eGFR and other confounders. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was higher among those with lower eGFR, independent of traditional vascular risk factors. This association may be explained in part by anemia.Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 10/2010; 6(2):248-56. · 5.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Peripheral microvascular complications in diabetes are associated with concurrent cerebrovascular disease. As detailed cognitive assessment is not routinely carried out among diabetic patients, the aim was to establish whether the presence of clinical "peripheral" microvascular disease can identify a subgroup of patients with early evidence of cognitive impairment. Detailed psychometric assessment was performed in 23 diabetic patients with no microvascular complications (Group D), 27 diabetic patients with at least one microvascular complication: retinopathy, neuropathy, and/or nephropathy (Group DC), and 25 healthy controls (Group H). Groups D and DC participants had significantly lower scores on reaction time (P = 0.003 and 0.0001, resp.) compared to controls. Similarly, groups D and DC participants had significantly lower scores on rapid processing of visual information (P = 0.034 and 0.001, resp.) compared to controls. In contrast, there was no significant difference between Groups D and DC on any of the cognitive areas examined. The results show that diabetes, in general, is associated with cognitive dysfunction, but the additional presence of peripheral microvascular disease does not add to cognitive decline. The study, however, indirectly supports the notion that the aetiology of cognitive impairment in diabetes may not be restricted to vascular pathology.Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology 01/2011; 2011:723434.