Increasing willingness to be tested for human immunodeficiency virus in the emergency department during off-hour tours: A randomized trial

Emergency Medicine Department, Jacobi Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA.
Sex Transm Dis (Impact Factor: 2.75). 01/2008; 34(12):1025-9. DOI: 10.1097/OLQ.0b013e31814b96bb
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To test a model designed to increase willingness of patients presenting to the emergency department off hours to be tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by using a pretest counseling video as a substitute for face-to-face counseling.
We conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing the rate of testing in patients randomized to receive video counseling with immediate testing (video group) versus standard care, which was referral to counseling and testing the next day (standard referral group).
Fifty percent of 805 eligible patients consented to participate in the study, indicating willingness to be tested. The HIV testing rate was higher in the video group 92.6% (187 of 202) than in the standard referral group 4.5% (9 of 202) (difference = 88.1%, 95% confidence interval: 83.5%-92.7%). Thirty percent of 187 patients in the video group who were tested returned for their results; 8 of 9 patients in standard care returned to be tested and to get their results.
Half of the patients who were solicited for HIV testing agreed to be tested. When testing was immediate the patient was more likely to have the test completed.

  • Annals of emergency medicine 05/2009; 54(1):65-71. DOI:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2009.03.027 · 4.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Undiagnosed HIV infection remains a significant public health problem. To address this, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention revised testing recommendations, calling for routine opt-out HIV screening among adults in health care settings. However, these recommendations have not been widely implemented in primary care settings. We examined acceptability of opt-out HIV testing in an urban community health center and factors associated with accepting testing. From July 2007 to March 2008, physicians or a designated HIV tester approached patients presenting for primary care visits during 52 clinical sessions at an urban community health center. Patients were told they "would be tested for HIV unless they declined testing." Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, which required venipuncture, were used to test for HIV infection. We extracted demographic, clinical, and visit characteristics from medical records and examined associations between these characteristics and accepting HIV testing using logistic regression. Of 300 patients, 35% agreed to HIV testing, with no new HIV infections detected. Common reasons for declining testing were perceived low risk (54.4%) and self-reported HIV testing previously (45.1%). Younger age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.96-0.99), Hispanic ethnicity (AOR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.01-3.14), and having another blood test during the visit (AOR = 6.36, 95% CI = 3.58-11.28) were independently associated with accepting HIV testing. This study questions whether expanding HIV testing by conducting routine opt-out HIV testing in primary care settings is an acceptable strategy. It is important to understand how various testing strategies may affect HIV testing rates. In addition, further exploration of patients' reasons for declining HIV testing in these settings is warranted.
    AIDS patient care and STDs 08/2009; 23(8):619-23. DOI:10.1089/apc.2009.0005 · 3.58 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines and the World Health Organization (WHO) both recommend HIV testing in health-care settings. However, neither organization provides prescriptive details regarding how these recommendations should be adapted into clinical practice in an emergency department. We have implemented an HIV-testing program in the ED of a major academic medical center within the scope of the Universal Screening for HIV Infection in the Emergency Room (USHER) Trial-a randomized clinical trial evaluating the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of HIV screening in this setting. Drawing on our collective experiences in establishing programs domestically and internationally, we offer a practical framework of lessons learned so that others poised to embark on such HIV testing programs may benefit from our experiences.
    International Journal of Emergency Medicine 09/2009; 2(3):187-94. DOI:10.1007/s12245-009-0123-x