Inhibitory effect of YC-1, 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole, on experimental choroidal neovascularization in rat.
ABSTRACT It was the aim of this study to evaluate the effects of YC-1, 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole, one of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) inhibitors, on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in rats.
Thirty female Brown Norway rats underwent laser photocoagulation to induce CNV. Twenty of them (treatment group) were treated with a single intravitreal injection of 5 microg YC-1, and the remaining 10 (control) were sham-treated with a single intravitreal injection of 2.5 mg/ml dimethyl sulfoxide 2 weeks after laser photocoagulation. The expression of HIF-1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in CNV was evaluated by immunofluorescence staining. Fluorescein angiography was performed 2 weeks before and 2 weeks after single intravitreal YC-1 (5 microg) and dimethyl sulfoxide (2.5 mg/ml) injection, grading fluorescein leakage from 0 to 3. The size of the CNV was measured on histologic sections.
Both HIF-1alpha and VEGF were expressed in CNV lesions in the control group 4 weeks after laser photocoagulation, whereas the expressions of HIF-1alpha and VEGF were not observed in the intravitreally YC-1-treated group. The mean fluorescein leakage score decreased from 2.56 +/- 0.49 to 0.79 +/- 0.71 in the intravitreally YC-1-injected group and from 2.62 +/- 0.49 to 1.58 +/- 0.60 in the control group. Sixty-eight (71.6%) out of 95 CNV lesions of intravitreally YC-1-treated eyes (71.4%) and 12 (21.8%) out of 55 lesions in DMSO-treated eyes showed a decreased fluorescein leakage score of 2 or more. The mean difference of fluorescein leakage scores between the intravitreally YC-1-treated group and the control group was significant (p = 0.004). The mean thickness of the CNV lesions in the intravitreally YC-1-treated group (27.30 +/- 6.47 microm) was smaller than that of the control group (64.36 +/- 8.26 microm, p < 0.001). There was no ocular inflammation, retina hemorrhage or systemic toxicity induced by YC-1 treatment.
These results suggest that YC-1 inhibits the HIF-1 expression after photocoagulation and suppresses the development of laser-induced CNV formation.
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ABSTRACT: Mammalian cells are believed to have a cell-intrinsic ability to increase glucose metabolism in response to hypoxia. Here we show that the ability of hematopoietic cells to up-regulate anaerobic glycolysis in response to hypoxia is dependent on receptor-mediated signal transduction. In the absence of growth factor signaling, hematopoietic cells fail to express hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (Hif-1alpha) mRNA. Growth factor-deprived hematopoietic cells do not engage in glucose-dependent anabolic synthesis and neither express Hif-1alpha mRNA nor require HIF-1alpha protein to regulate cell survival in response to hypoxia. However, HIF-1alpha is adaptive for the survival of growth factor-stimulated cells, as suppression of HIF-1alpha results in death when growing cells are exposed to hypoxia. Growth factor-dependent HIF-1alpha expression reprograms the intracellular fate of glucose, resulting in decreased glucose-dependent anabolic synthesis and increased lactate production, an effect that is enhanced when HIF-1alpha protein is stabilized by hypoxia. Together, these data suggest that HIF-1alpha contributes to the regulation of growth factor-stimulated glucose metabolism even in the absence of hypoxia.Genes & Development 06/2007; 21(9):1037-49. · 12.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Soluble guanylyl cyclase is an important target for endogenous nitric oxide and the guanylyl cyclase modulator, YC-1. Recently BAY 41-2272 was identified as a similar but more potent and more specific substance. While YC-1 also acts as non-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, BAY 41-2272 is devoid of an effect on phosphodiesterases. BAY 41-2272 has so far only been tested on the alpha(1)/beta(1) heterodimeric isoform of soluble guanylyl cyclase and its binding site has been mapped to a region in the alpha(1) subunit amino-terminal sequence. Although this region is poorly conserved in the alpha(2) subunit, we show in the current study that the alpha(2)/beta(1) heterodimeric enzyme isoform is activated by BAY 41-2272. Deletion analysis of the alpha(2) subunit and co-expression with the beta(1) subunit in the baculovirus/Sf9 system is consistent with the amino-terminal amino acids 104 to 401 of the alpha(2) subunit as binding site for BAY 41-2272.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2002; 292(4):1057-62. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study was designed to investigate the effect of YC-1, 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) proliferation and its underlying mechanism. YC-1 at a range of concentrations (5-50 microM) inhibited DNA synthesis and decreased cell number in cultured HUVEC in a dose- and time-dependent manner. YC-1 was not cytotoxic at these concentrations. [3H]thymidine incorporation and flow cytometry analyses revealed that YC-1 treatment decreased DNA synthesis and arrested the cells at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Western blot analysis demonstrated that YC-1 (5-50 microM) increased the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-inhibitory proteins (CKIs), p21 and p27, but did not induce any significant changes of cyclins and CDKs. In the YC-1-treated HUVEC, the formation of CDK2-p21 complex, but not CDK2-p27 complex, was increased and the assayable CDK2 kinase activity was decreased. These changes were in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the formations of CDK4-p21 and CDK4-p27 complex were slightly increased and the assayable CDK4 kinase activity was slightly decreased (if there were any changes). Pretreatment with guanylyl cyclase inhibitors, 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinozalin-1-one (ODQ) and methylene blue, inhibited the YC-1-induced increase of cyclic GMP level, but did not change significantly the magnitude of the YC-1-induced inhibition of thymidine incorporation and cell number in HUVEC. These results indicate that YC-1-induced cell cycle arrest in HUVEC occurred when the cyclin-CDK system was inhibited just as p21 and p27 protein levels were augmented. This YC-1-induced antiproliferation effect in HUVEC is via a cyclic GMP-independent pathway.Biochemical Pharmacology 08/2003; 66(2):263-71. · 4.58 Impact Factor