Article

The Intracellular Granzyme B Inhibitor, Proteinase Inhibitor 9, Is Up-Regulated During Accessory Cell Maturation and Effector Cell Degranulation, and Its Overexpression Enhances CTL Potency

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, Australia.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 02/2003; 170(2):805-15. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.170.2.805
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Granzyme B (grB) is a serine proteinase released by cytotoxic lymphocytes (CLs) to kill abnormal cells. GrB-mediated apoptotic pathways are conserved in nucleated cells; hence, CLs require mechanisms to protect against ectopic or misdirected grB. The nucleocytoplasmic serpin, proteinase inhibitor 9 (PI-9), is a potent inhibitor of grB that protects cells from grB-mediated apoptosis in model systems. Here we show that PI-9 is present in CD4(+) cells, CD8(+) T cells, NK cells, and at lower levels in B cells and myeloid cells. PI-9 is up-regulated in response to grB production and degranulation, and associates with grB-containing granules in activated CTLs and NK cells. Intracellular complexes of PI-9 and grB are evident in NK cells, and overexpression of PI-9 enhances CTL potency, suggesting that cytoplasmic grB, which may threaten CL viability, is rapidly inactivated by PI-9. Because dendritic cells (DCs) acquire characteristics similar to those of target cells to activate naive CD8(+) T cells and therefore may also require protection against grB, we investigated the expression of PI-9 in DCs. PI-9 is evident in thymic DCs (CD3(-), CD4(+), CD8(-), CD45(+)), tonsillar DCs, and DC subsets purified from peripheral blood (CD16(+) monocytes and CD123(+) plasmacytoid DCs). Furthermore, PI-9 is expressed in monocyte-derived DCs and is up-regulated upon TNF-alpha-induced maturation of monocyte-derived DCs. In conclusion, the presence and subcellular localization of PI-9 in leukocytes and DCs are consistent with a protective role against ectopic or misdirected grB during an immune response.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Marguerite Buzza, Feb 23, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
54 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protease inhibitors of the serpin family are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom but relatively little is known about their biological functions in comparison with their counterparts in animals. X-ray crystal structures have provided crucial insights into animal serpin functions. The recently solved structure of AtSerpin1 from Arabidopsis thaliana, which has the highly conserved reactive center P2-P1' Leu-Arg-Xaa (Xaa = small residue), displays both conserved and plant-specific serpin features. Sequence homology suggests that AtSerpin1 belongs to serpin Clade B, composed of intracellular mammalian serpins, which is consistent with the lack of strong evidence for secretion of serpins from plant cells. The major in vivo target protease for AtSerpin1 is the papain-like cysteine RD21 protease, a match reminiscent of the inhibition of cathepsins K, L and S by the Clade-B mammalian serpin, SCCA-1 (SERPINB3). The function of AtSerpin1 and other serpins that contain P2-P1' Leu-Arg-Xaa (the 'LR' serpins) in plants remains unknown. However, based on its homology and interactive partners, AtSerpin1 and perhaps other serpins are likely to be involved in regulating programmed cell death or associated processes such as senescence. Abundant accumulation of serpins in seeds and their presence in phloem sap suggest additional functions in plant defense by irreversible inhibition of digestive proteases from pests or pathogens. Here we review the most recent findings in plant serpin biology, focusing on advances in describing the structure and inhibitory specificity of the LR serpins.
    Physiologia Plantarum 11/2011; 145(1):95-102. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-3054.2011.01540.x · 3.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The role of proteinase inhibitor (PI)-9 in hematopoietic cells remains unclear. To clarify the role of PI-9 in these cells, we compared the expressions of PI-9 mRNA and antigen with those of granzyme B (GrB). While the strongest expression of PI-9 mRNA was observed in a NK cell line YT-N10, it was also expressed in a B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line U-Tree02, an Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-transformed B cell clone, a CD8+ T lymphocyte clone and a megakaryocytic cell line CMK, but not in a T cell line Jurkat. Phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate (PMA) enhanced PI-9 mRNA expression in the CD8+ T lymphocyte clone and YT-N10 cells prior to GrB mRNA expression. IL-2 and IL-12 also had similar effects. PMA increased PI-9 mRNA expression in the EBV-transformed B cell clone and CMK cells, but IL-6 showed no effect. No changes were noted in PI-9 and GrB antigens after the addition of these agonists. Patients with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) may have activated CTLs and NK cells. We therefore examined the expression of PI-9 and GrB mRNAs in eight patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with GVHD (n = 4) or without chronic GVHD (n = 4). Expression of GrB mRNA was significantly increased in three patients with GVHD and one patient without GVHD. Surprisingly, PI-9 mRNA expression was decreased in the eight patients. These results indicate that earlier synthesis of PI-9 may be essential for the prevention of autolysis of immunocompetent cells, and that the expression of PI-9 and GrB mRNAs may be controlled through different pathways.
    The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 03/2005; 205(2):103-13. DOI:10.1620/tjem.205.103 · 1.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The phylogenetically conserved innate immune systems of insects and other invertebrates employblood cells (hemocytes) that are functionally reminiscent of vertebrate macrophages, attesting to theimportance of phagocytosis and other cell-mediated responses in eliminating various pathogens. Receptorligandbinding activates signaling cascades that promote collaborative cellular interactions and theproduction of pathogen-specific cytotoxic responses. Numerous comparative genetic and molecularstudies have shown the cytotoxic effector responses made by cells of the innate immune system to beevolutionarily conserved. Comparative analyses of genomic sequences provide convincing evidence thatmany of the biochemical processes manifested by immune-activated hemocytes are similar to thosemade by activated vertebrate macrophages. Included in this genomic repertoire are enzymes associatedwith reactive intermediates of oxygen and nitrogen, cellular redox homeostasis, and apoptosis, thesynthesis of extracellular matrix, cell adhesion and pattern recognition molecules. Surprisingly, little isknown of the types of cytotoxic molecules produced by invertebrate hemocytes, and the signaling andtranscriptional events associated with their collaborative interactions when engaging pathogens andparasites. This review examines certain aspects of the blood cell-mediated defense responses ofDrosophila, and some of the signaling pathways that have been implicated in hemocyte activation,differentiation, and the regulation of hematopoiesis.