The influence of low-activity NER genotypes (XPC PAT-/+, XPA-A23G, XPD Asp312Asn, XPD Lys751Gln) and GSTM1 (active or null) was evaluated on anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-(B[a]PDE)-DNA adduct formed in the lymphocyte plus monocyte fraction (LMF). The sample population consisted of 291 healthy subjects with low exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (B[a]P) through their smoking (n=126 smokers) or dietary habits (n=165 non-smokers with high (>or=52 times/year) consumption of charcoaled meat or pizza). The bulky anti-B[a]PDE-DNA adduct levels were detected by HPLC/fluorescence analysis and genotypes by PCR. Anti-B[a]PDE-DNA was present (>or=0.5 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) in 163 (56%) subjects (median (range) 0.77 (0.125-32.0) adducts/10(8) nucleotides), with smokers showing a significantly higher adduct level than non-smokers with high consumption of PAH-rich meals (P<0.01). Our exposed-sample population with unfavourable XPC PAT+/- or +/+ and GSTM1 null genotypes has the significantly highest adduct level (P<0.01). Taking into account tobacco smoke and diet as sources of exposure to B[a]P, low-activity XPC PAT+ shows a major role in smokers (P<0.05) and GSTM1 null in non-smokers with frequent consumption of PAH-rich meals (P<0.01). The modulation of anti-B[a]PDE-DNA adduct in the LMF by GSTM1 null and low-activity XPC PAT+ polymorphisms may be considered as potential genetic susceptibility factors that can modify individual responses to low PAH (B[a]P) genotoxic exposure, with the consequent risk of cancer in the general population.
"The formation of reactive metabolites of AAs and PAHs and their binding to DNA to give unrepaired/stable adducts, all modulated by genetic polymorphisms of metabolic and DNA repair enzymes, are considered critical events alongside the theoretical pathway that links exposure to BC . “Bulky” DNA adduct measurement has been therefore considered an integrated marker of both exposure to aromatic compounds and ability to activate carcinogens and repair DNA damage , . Significantly higher levels of aromatic DNA adducts have been found in the bladder cancer biopsies from smokers , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA adducts are considered an integrate measure of carcinogen exposure and the initial step of carcinogenesis. Their levels in more accessible peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) mirror that in the bladder tissue. In this study we explore whether the formation of PBL DNA adducts may be associated with bladder cancer (BC) risk, and how this relationship is modulated by genetic polymorphisms, environmental and occupational risk factors for BC. These complex interrelationships, including direct and indirect effects of each variable, were appraised using the structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis. Within the framework of a hospital-based case/control study, study population included 199 BC cases and 213 non-cancer controls, all Caucasian males. Data were collected on lifetime smoking, coffee drinking, dietary habits and lifetime occupation, with particular reference to exposure to aromatic amines (AAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). No indirect paths were found, disproving hypothesis on association between PBL DNA adducts and BC risk. DNA adducts were instead positively associated with occupational cumulative exposure to AAs (p = 0.028), whereas XRCC1 Arg 399 (p<0.006) was related with a decreased adduct levels, but with no impact on BC risk. Previous findings on increased BC risk by packyears (p<0.001), coffee (p<0.001), cumulative AAs exposure (p = 0.041) and MnSOD (p = 0.009) and a decreased risk by MPO (p<0.008) were also confirmed by SEM analysis. Our results for the first time make evident an association between occupational cumulative exposure to AAs with DNA adducts and BC risk, strengthening the central role of AAs in bladder carcinogenesis. However the lack of an association between PBL DNA adducts and BC risk advises that these snapshot measurements are not representative of relevant exposures. This would envisage new scenarios for biomarker discovery and new challenges such as repeated measurements at different critical life stages.
PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e94566. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0094566 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the 10 universal guidelines for healthy nutrition in a report of the World Cancer Research Fund released at the end of 2007 is to "limit intake of red meat and avoid processed meat", as a result of the "convincing evidence" for an association with an increased risk of colorectal cancer development. In the present paper, the scientific evidence for the association between processed meats intake and colorectal cancer development is explored and the most probable hypothesis on the mechanism underlying this relationship formulated. It seems that the present state of knowledge is not well understood but relates to a combination of haem iron, oxidative stress, formation of N-nitroso compounds and related residues in the digestive tract as the causal factors. Although criticisms of the inaccurate definition of processed meats and the insufficient accounting for the large variability in composition of meat products have been expressed, it is clear that the report urges proper action by the meat and nutrition research community and the meat industry. Research items that in our view should be addressed are discussed. They include: (1) evaluating the health risks associated with processed meats intake within the context of the supply of beneficial nutrients and other nutrition associated health risks; (2) definition of the role of nitrites and nitrates in meat processing; (3) investigating the role of red and processed meats on the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds in the digestive tract; and (4) developing improved processed meats using new ingredients.
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