Influence of GSTM1 null and low repair XPC PAT+ on anti-B[a]PDE-DNA adduct in mononuclear white blood cells of subjects low exposed to PAHs through smoking and diet.
ABSTRACT The influence of low-activity NER genotypes (XPC PAT-/+, XPA-A23G, XPD Asp312Asn, XPD Lys751Gln) and GSTM1 (active or null) was evaluated on anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-(B[a]PDE)-DNA adduct formed in the lymphocyte plus monocyte fraction (LMF). The sample population consisted of 291 healthy subjects with low exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (B[a]P) through their smoking (n=126 smokers) or dietary habits (n=165 non-smokers with high (>or=52 times/year) consumption of charcoaled meat or pizza). The bulky anti-B[a]PDE-DNA adduct levels were detected by HPLC/fluorescence analysis and genotypes by PCR. Anti-B[a]PDE-DNA was present (>or=0.5 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) in 163 (56%) subjects (median (range) 0.77 (0.125-32.0) adducts/10(8) nucleotides), with smokers showing a significantly higher adduct level than non-smokers with high consumption of PAH-rich meals (P<0.01). Our exposed-sample population with unfavourable XPC PAT+/- or +/+ and GSTM1 null genotypes has the significantly highest adduct level (P<0.01). Taking into account tobacco smoke and diet as sources of exposure to B[a]P, low-activity XPC PAT+ shows a major role in smokers (P<0.05) and GSTM1 null in non-smokers with frequent consumption of PAH-rich meals (P<0.01). The modulation of anti-B[a]PDE-DNA adduct in the LMF by GSTM1 null and low-activity XPC PAT+ polymorphisms may be considered as potential genetic susceptibility factors that can modify individual responses to low PAH (B[a]P) genotoxic exposure, with the consequent risk of cancer in the general population.
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ABSTRACT: Many carcinogens exert their biological effects through the formation of DNA adducts by metabolically activated intermediates. Detecting the presence of DNA adducts in human tissues is, therefore, a tool for molecular epidemiological studies of cancer. A large body of evidence demonstrates that DNA adducts are useful markers of carcinogen exposure, providing an integrated measurement of carcinogen intake, metabolic activation, and delivery to the target macromolecule in target tissues. Monitoring accessible surrogate tissues, such as white blood cells, also provides a means of investigating occupational or environmental exposure in healthy individuals. Such exposure to carcinogens, e.g. to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, has been demonstrated in several industries and in defined populations, respectively, by the detection of higher levels of adducts. Adducts detected in many tissues of smokers are at levels significantly higher than in non-smokers, although the magnitude of the elevation does not predict the magnitude of the risk. While such associations do not demonstrate causality, they do, importantly, lend plausibility to observed associations between smoking and cancer. However, there is still resistance to the notion that such monitoring can inform, rather than merely confirm, epidemiological investigations of cancer causation. Interestingly, smoking was recently causally linked to cervical cancer after years of being considered a confounding factor; yet smoking-related adducts have been known to be present in cervical epithelium for some time. In the few prospective studies thus far, elevated adduct levels have been found in individuals who subsequently developed cancer compared with individuals who did not. The potential for biomarker measurements, such as DNA adducts, to provide answers to the origin of many cases of human cancer for which an environmental cause is suspected, needs to be exploited more fully in future epidemiological studies.Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 10/2005; 577(1-2):284-92. · 3.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives were to investigate prospectively the ability of DNA adducts to predict cancer and to study the determinants of adducts, especially air pollutants. DNA adducts were measured in a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) investigation. Cases included newly diagnosed lung cancer (n = 115), upper respiratory cancers (pharynx and larynx; n = 82), bladder cancer (n = 124), leukemia (n = 166), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or emphysema deaths (n = 77) accrued after a median follow-up of 7 years among the EPIC former smokers and never-smokers. Three controls per case were matched for questionnaire analyses and two controls per case for laboratory analyses. Matching criteria were gender, age, smoking status, country of recruitment, and follow-up time. Individual exposure to air pollution was assessed using concentration data from monitoring stations in routine air quality monitoring networks. Leukocyte DNA adducts were analyzed blindly using 32P postlabeling technique. Adducts were associated with the subsequent risk of lung cancer, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.86 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.88-3.93] when comparing detectable versus nondetectable adducts. The association with lung cancer was stronger in never-smokers (OR, 4.04; 95% CI, 1.06-15.42) and among the younger age groups. After exclusion of the cancers occurring in the first 36 months of follow-up, the OR was 4.16 (95% CI, 1.24-13.88). A positive association was found between DNA adducts and ozone (O3) concentration. Our prospective study suggests that leukocyte DNA adducts may predict lung cancer risk of never-smokers. Besides, the association of DNA adduct levels with O3 indicates a possible role for photochemical smog in determining DNA damage.Cancer Research 10/2005; 65(17):8042-8. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic studies indicate that prolonged exposure to particulate air pollution may be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer in general population. These effects may be attributable to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed to respirable air particles. It is expected that metabolic and DNA repair gene polymorphisms may modulate individual susceptibility to PAH exposure. This study investigates relationships between exposure to PAHs, polymorphisms of these genes and DNA adducts in group of occupationally exposed policemen (EXP, N=53, males, aged 22-50 years) working outdoors in the downtown area of Prague and in matched "unexposed" controls (CON, N=52). Personal exposure to eight carcinogenic PAHs (c-PAHs) was evaluated by personal samplers during working shift prior to collection of biological samples. Bulky-aromatic DNA adducts were analyzed in lymphocytes by (32)P-postlabeling assay. Polymorphisms of metabolizing (GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, EPHX1, CYP1A1-MspI) and DNA repair (XRCC1, XPD) genes were determined by PCR-based RFLP assays. As potential modifiers and/or cofounders, urinary cotinine levels were analyzed by radioimmunoassay, plasma levels of vitamins A, C, E and folates by HPLC, cholesterol and triglycerides using commercial kits. During the sampling period ambient particulate air pollution was as follows: PM10 32-55microg/m(3), PM2.5 27-38microg/m(3), c-PAHs 18-22ng/m(3); personal exposure to c-PAHs: 9.7ng/m(3) versus 5.8ng/m(3) (P<0.01) for EXP and CON groups, respectively. The total DNA adduct levels did not significantly differ between EXP and CON groups (0.92+/-0.28adducts/10(8) nucleotides versus 0.82+/-0.23adducts/10(8) nucleotides, P=0.065), whereas the level of the B[a]P-"like" adduct was significantly higher in exposed group (0.122+/-0.036adducts/10(8) nucleotides versus 0.099+/-0.035adducts/10(8) nucleotides, P=0.003). A significant difference in both the total (P<0.05) and the B[a]P-"like" DNA adducts (P<0.01) between smokers and nonsmokers within both groups was observed. A significant positive association between DNA adduct and cotinine levels (r=0.368, P<0.001) and negative association between DNA adduct and vitamin C levels (r=-0.290, P=0.004) was found. The results of multivariate regression analysis showed smoking, vitamin C, polymorphisms of XPD repair gene in exon 23 and GSTM1 gene as significant predictors for total DNA adduct levels. Exposure to ambient air pollution, smoking, and polymorphisms of XPD repair gene in exon 6 were significant predictors for B[a]P-"like" DNA adduct. To sum up, this study suggests that polymorphisms of DNA repair genes involved in nucleotide excision repair may modify aromatic DNA adduct levels and may be useful biomarkers to identify individuals susceptible to DNA damage resulting from c-PAHs exposure.Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 07/2007; 620(1-2):49-61. · 3.90 Impact Factor