Influence of GSTM1 null and low repair XPC PAT+ on anti-B[a]PDE-DNA adduct in mononuclear white blood cells of subjects low exposed to PAHs through smoking and diet.
ABSTRACT The influence of low-activity NER genotypes (XPC PAT-/+, XPA-A23G, XPD Asp312Asn, XPD Lys751Gln) and GSTM1 (active or null) was evaluated on anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-(B[a]PDE)-DNA adduct formed in the lymphocyte plus monocyte fraction (LMF). The sample population consisted of 291 healthy subjects with low exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (B[a]P) through their smoking (n=126 smokers) or dietary habits (n=165 non-smokers with high (>or=52 times/year) consumption of charcoaled meat or pizza). The bulky anti-B[a]PDE-DNA adduct levels were detected by HPLC/fluorescence analysis and genotypes by PCR. Anti-B[a]PDE-DNA was present (>or=0.5 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) in 163 (56%) subjects (median (range) 0.77 (0.125-32.0) adducts/10(8) nucleotides), with smokers showing a significantly higher adduct level than non-smokers with high consumption of PAH-rich meals (P<0.01). Our exposed-sample population with unfavourable XPC PAT+/- or +/+ and GSTM1 null genotypes has the significantly highest adduct level (P<0.01). Taking into account tobacco smoke and diet as sources of exposure to B[a]P, low-activity XPC PAT+ shows a major role in smokers (P<0.05) and GSTM1 null in non-smokers with frequent consumption of PAH-rich meals (P<0.01). The modulation of anti-B[a]PDE-DNA adduct in the LMF by GSTM1 null and low-activity XPC PAT+ polymorphisms may be considered as potential genetic susceptibility factors that can modify individual responses to low PAH (B[a]P) genotoxic exposure, with the consequent risk of cancer in the general population.
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ABSTRACT: DNA adducts are considered an integrate measure of carcinogen exposure and the initial step of carcinogenesis. Their levels in more accessible peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) mirror that in the bladder tissue. In this study we explore whether the formation of PBL DNA adducts may be associated with bladder cancer (BC) risk, and how this relationship is modulated by genetic polymorphisms, environmental and occupational risk factors for BC. These complex interrelationships, including direct and indirect effects of each variable, were appraised using the structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis. Within the framework of a hospital-based case/control study, study population included 199 BC cases and 213 non-cancer controls, all Caucasian males. Data were collected on lifetime smoking, coffee drinking, dietary habits and lifetime occupation, with particular reference to exposure to aromatic amines (AAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). No indirect paths were found, disproving hypothesis on association between PBL DNA adducts and BC risk. DNA adducts were instead positively associated with occupational cumulative exposure to AAs (p = 0.028), whereas XRCC1 Arg 399 (p<0.006) was related with a decreased adduct levels, but with no impact on BC risk. Previous findings on increased BC risk by packyears (p<0.001), coffee (p<0.001), cumulative AAs exposure (p = 0.041) and MnSOD (p = 0.009) and a decreased risk by MPO (p<0.008) were also confirmed by SEM analysis. Our results for the first time make evident an association between occupational cumulative exposure to AAs with DNA adducts and BC risk, strengthening the central role of AAs in bladder carcinogenesis. However the lack of an association between PBL DNA adducts and BC risk advises that these snapshot measurements are not representative of relevant exposures. This would envisage new scenarios for biomarker discovery and new challenges such as repeated measurements at different critical life stages.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e94566. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tobacco smoke contains a variety of genotoxic carcinogens that form adducts with DNA and protein in the tissues of smokers. Not only are these biochemical events relevant to the carcinogenic process, but the detection of adducts provides a means of monitoring exposure to tobacco smoke. Characterization of smoking-related adducts has shed light on the mechanisms of smoking-related diseases and many different types of smoking-derived DNA and protein adducts have been identified. Such approaches also reveal the potential harm of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to nonsmokers, infants and children. Because the majority of tobacco-smoke carcinogens are not exclusive to this source of exposure, studies comparing smokers and nonsmokers may be confounded by other environmental sources. Nevertheless, certain DNA and protein adducts have been validated as biomarkers of exposure to tobacco smoke, with continuing applications in the study of ETS exposures, cancer prevention and tobacco product legislation. Our article is a review of the literature on smoking-related adducts in human tissues published since 2002.International Journal of Cancer 09/2012; 131(12):2733-53. · 6.20 Impact Factor